Montreux Jazz Festival 2020 - Brittany Howard and Black Pumas join Lionel Richie and Lenny Kravitz

Two concerts will complete the evenings of 8 and 13 July at Auditorium Stravinski: the prodigious Brittany Howard will open for Lionel Richie, and new soul sensation Black Pumas will introduce Lenny Kravitz at the 54th edition of the Montreux Jazz Festival.

Brittany Howard - Auditorium Stravinski Wed. 8 July, 2020
Brittany Howard came to Montreux twice with her group, one of the most emblematic of recent years: Alabama Shakes (winners of four Grammy Awards) tore through the Stravinski like a tornado for concerts in 2012 and 2015. 

She is equally at ease with gospel, blues, and rock and roll, but she went far beyond on her first solo album, which came out last autumn to unanimous acclaim. A collection of intense, luminous songs with flawless melodies and arrangements.

Black Pumas - Auditorium Stravinski Wed. 13 July, 2020
Out of Austin, Texas, Black Pumas infuse their music with the sensuality of soul, vintage arrangements, and the edge of feverish blues rock. Born in 2017 of the meeting between singer-guitarist Eric Burton and guitarist-producer Adrian Quesada – who worked with Prince – Black Pumas exploded onto the scene with the release of their self-titled debut album. 

Very quickly, they earned plaudits from international critics for their audacious blend, in which the instantly enchanting voice of Burton is paired with Quesada’s guitar riffs, piercing brasses, and Latin stylings.

Pedro Almodóvar’s ‘Pain and Glory’ Sweeps Spanish Academy Goya Awards

Antonio Banderas, award for best leading actor in the Goya2020 / Frank Ramos - United Photo Press
Málaga — Pedro Almodóvar’s “Pain and Glory” took home Best Picture, Best Director, Best Actor (Antonio Banderas) and Best Original Screenplay at the 34th Spanish Academy Goya Awards, as well as Best Editing, Original Music and Supporting Actress (Julieta Serrano).

Almodóvar’s night did have one blemish, however. On the red carpet ahead of the ceremony he accidentally let slip that actress Penelope Cruz will be handing out this year’s Academy Award for Best International Feature Film at the Oscars, as she and Banderas did last time Almodóvar won, with 2000’s “All About my Mother.”

Saturday night’s ceremony ran like a marathon, with Almodóvar and Alejandro Amenábar’s “While at War” exchanging the lead back and forth over the 3.5 hour ceremony before “Pain and Glory” took the ceremony’s final three prizes, ending with seven awards while Amenábar’s Spanish Civil War epic notched five.

In his first on-stage appearance of the night, Almodóvar addressed Spain’s newly elected president Pedro Sánchez, in the audience and a vocal proponent of the arts and culture, wishing him well over the next four years, noting that any success for Sánchez would be a success for the Spanish people.

When he returned later to accept his best director prize, his message was more specific. “Spanish cinema is in a good place, but it has many dark areas. I would like to tell the President that auteur cinema, independent, outside the margins of the platforms, is in serious danger of extinction,” he said.

Belén Cuesta took home best actress for her commanding performance in “The Endless Trench,” another Spanish Civil War film and San Sebastian’s biggest winner. Best known for her comedic work, critical praise now backed by awards mark Cuesta as a major dramatic talent in Spain.

A betters’ favorite heading into the night, Cannes best actor and Oscar-nominee Antonio Banderas took best actor for his performance in Almodóvar’s “Pain and Glory.”

Without doubt the most emotional and grateful speech addressed to Almodóvar on the evening, Banderas’ acceptance thanked the director for his friendship and both his life and cinema lessons.

“In 40 years, I’ve never met an artist with the loyalty you have to your cinema,” he said. “I’ve learned so much from you, not only about the art world, but also about life. I had to meet you to get here. I have done my best work with you.”

“Today is three years since I had a heart attack. Not only am I alive, but I feel very alive,” he concluded.

Best animated feature went to “Buñuel in the Labyrinth of the Turtles,” a resourceful chronicle of the shooting of “Land Without Bread,” directed by Spanish master Luis Buñuel in 1933 in Spain’s secluded highlands of Las Hurdes. Sold by Latido and produced by Sygnatia in co-production with The Glow Animation Studio and Dutch outfit Submarine, it’s proved an award magnet with kudos including the Jury Award at Annecy and a European Film Award.

Academy president Mariano Barroso gave his annual state of the union-style address, where he celebrated the state of Spanish cinema.

More than 105 million viewers saw films in the theater in Spain in 2019, 8% more than the previous year (97.8 million) and the highest number of the last decade, according to Comscore data. In total, the 2019 box office take ended at €624.1 million ($6.88 million), up 7% from 2018.

What Barroso did not mention however, is the screen share for Spanish films, 15.9 million viewers, fell to 15% of total box office, the worst figure in the last six years.

He also announced 2021 as the year of Berlanga, “To celebrate the birth of one of our founders. It will help us understand some things about our country and get to know each other a little better.”

Born in Valencia, Spain in 1921 Luis García-Berlanga is a key name in the history of Spanish cinema, not just due to masterpieces such as “Welcome Mr. Marshall!” (1953) “Placido” (1961) and “The Executioner” (1963) but also due to the deep impact he made by introducing Italian neorealism to the country and a creator of a very singular style in social comedy, along with his regular writer Rafael Azcona.

Other highlights included Best New Actress going to 84-year-old Benedicta Sánchez from “Fire Will Come,” Jamie Cullum’s moving performance during the “In Memoria” section, and Spanish singing contest-winner Amaia, who sang a tribute to honorary Goya winner Marisol.

2020 Goya Awards / Photography by Frank Ramos / United Photo Press
See the full photo vídeo album here

And the winners are:

“Pain and Glory” (Pedro Almodóvar)
Pedro Almodóvar
Belén Funes (“A Thief’s Daughter”)
Belén Cuesta (“The Endless Trench”)
Antonio Banderas (“Pain and Glory”)
Julieta Serrano (“Pain and Glory”)
Eduard Fernández (“While at War”)
Pedro Almodóvar
Benito Zambrano, Daniel Remón and Pablo Remón (“Out in the Open”)CINEMATOGRAPHY
Mauro Hercé (“Fire Will Come”)
Alberto Iglesias (“Pain and Glory”)
“Intemperie” by Javier Ruibal (“Out in the Open”)
Enric Auquer (“Eye for an Eye”)
Benedicta Sánchez (“Fire Will Come”)
“Buñuel in the Labyrinth of the Turtles” (Salvador Simó)
“Heroic Losers” (Sebastián Borensztein, Argentina)
“Les Misérables” (Ladj Ly, France)
“Ara Malikian: una vida entre las cuerdas” (Nata Moreno)
Pepa Flores (“Marisol”)
“Suc de Síndria” (Irene Moray)
“Madrid 2120” (José Luís Quirós, Paco Sáez)
“Our Life as Refugee Children in Europe” (Silvia Venegas)
Teresa Font (“Pain and Glory”)
Carla Pérez de Albéniz (“While at War”)
Sonia Grande (“While at War”)
Juan Pedro de Gaspar (“While at War”)
Iñaki Díez, Alazne Ameztoy, Xanti Salvador, Nacho Royo-Villanova (“The Endless Trench”)
Ana López-Puigcerver, Belén López-Puigcerver, Nacho Díaz (“While at War”)
Mario Campoy, Iñaki Madariaga (“The Platform”)

The Cost of Fleeing Climate Change

How an adoption racket in Arkansas offered a way off the Marshall Islands.

Navigational charts, wall decorations, and hats at the Marshallese Resource and Education Center, in Springdale, Arkansas, where estimates of the Marshallese population hover between twelve and fifteen thousand.

In the summer of 2015, Shelma Lamy and her infant daughter, Neslina, got on a plane in Majuro, the capital of the Marshall Islands, and flew to northwest Arkansas. Life in the islands had been difficult. While Lamy was growing up, her parents worked nonstop—her father was a carpenter but also drove a taxi; her mother was a cook in a restaurant—so she spent much of her time helping with chores around the house, cooking and cleaning, and watching the smaller children, including a brother who was half-paralyzed. In the eighth grade, she stopped going to school, like many other kids her age; as she got older, it was hard to find work. The unemployment rate in the Marshall Islands is nearly forty per cent, and most of the available jobs for someone with little education are men’s jobs, such as construction, Lamy said—“and they don’t always bring enough money to support the whole household.” Often, one household, as was Lamy’s case, includes three or four families living together.

The Republic of the Marshall Islands, situated between Hawaii and the Philippines, includes twenty-nine widely dispersed coral atolls and five volcanic islands, spread across seven hundred and fifty thousand square miles of the Pacific Ocean. At the end of the Second World War, the United States took control of the Marshall Islands from Japan and quickly turned the region into a nuclear-weapons test site. Over the next decade or so, the U.S. military dropped sixty-seven atomic bombs in the islands, primarily around and on Bikini and Enewetak Atolls, severely contaminating the region with plutonium and other particles of radioactive fallout. There have since been high rates of thyroid cancer and birth defects, including congenital cataracts. Lamy was born with a cataract in one eye, which severely restricts her vision, though it is impossible to know with certainty whether radiation exposure was the cause. Her daughter was born with the same condition.

The islands, which, on average, are six and a half feet above sea level, now face another existential threat: rising seas, shifting weather patterns, and high temperatures associated with climate change. High-tide flooding is a frequent occurrence, even in the most developed areas of Majuro, where boulders and land fill have been deployed to protect infrastructure. In 2015, an unseasonal typhoon left Majuro Atoll “like a war zone,” as one Marshallese official put it. In 2016, the Marshall Islands suffered a drought so severe that water was rationed to residents for a limit of four hours per week. Coral reefs and the fish they sustain are dying, and extended periods of dangerous warming in the water creates fish-killing algae blooms, as well. In the first week of December, fifteen-foot waves flooded Majuro, washing away several homes and businesses, while the country’s two hospitals were at capacity due to the largest recorded outbreak of dengue fever.

That same week, Hilda Heine, who was the President of the Marshall Islands until January, spoke by video feed to world leaders gathered for the United Nations climate talks in Madrid. The Marshall Islands are “facing death row,” she said. Rich nations’ failure to commit to rapid, and much more ambitious, emissions cuts, she pleaded, was the equivalent of “passing sentence on our future, forcing our country to die.”

While migration from the islands to the United States has been increasing, thanks largely to remittances from family members who are already here, much of the population that wants to migrate cannot afford a plane ticket. When Lamy got pregnant with Neslina, at the age of nineteen, she was overjoyed, but quickly realized that she would be raising her on her own, with no support from Neslina’s father. When she got pregnant a second time, a year later, she was scared. She started speaking with her relatives to see if there was someone else who might help. Adoption between relatives and in-laws is common throughout the Marshall Islands, and children often live freely between households—raised, in fact, by a village. According to one study, as many as twenty-five per cent of all Marshallese children are adopted. But most birth parents are still able to see their children regularly and maintain relationships with them into adulthood.

Lamy, at first, had such an arrangement in mind, and yet none of her relatives were in a position to raise another child. Then one of her uncles told her that there might be another option. An acquaintance knew an American attorney named Paul Petersen, who had been a Mormon missionary in the Marshall Islands years ago and now ran an adoption agency in the United States. If Lamy was interested, Petersen would fly her and her daughter to Arkansas—where some of her relatives had settled a few years prior—and give her money throughout the course of her pregnancy to pay for rent, food, clothes, medical bills, and other expenses. An American couple would then adopt her baby after she gave birth. Lamy wondered whether she would have a say in who the adoptive parents would be. Her uncle did not know—that would have to be sorted out once she arrived in Arkansas. In any case, adoption in exchange for a ticket to the United States seemed like the best choice, almost too good to be true.

A month later, an aunt met her at the airport and gave her a ride to her apartment in the town of Springdale, an old agricultural outpost with around eighty thousand residents and home to the corporate headquarters of Tyson Foods. Lamy was twenty years old and seven months pregnant. “I couldn’t believe I was really living in America,” she told me. “I felt like I had won the lottery.”

In Majuro, everyone has heard of Arkansas, and virtually everyone knows someone who lives there. When the Marshall Islands gained full independence from U.S. administration, in 1986, the country entered into an agreement called the Compact of Free Association with the U.S., which allows Marshallese citizens to live and work in the United States freely, without a visa. The U.S. maintains a missile-test site on Kwajalein Atoll, and military interests—as opposed to concern about the atomic damage that had already been done on the islands—were at the center of American negotiations. The portal to Arkansas began when a Marshallese man named John Moody moved to the United States and eventually settled in Springdale for a job at one of Tyson’s chicken plants. As word spread that jobs were plentiful—George’s, Inc., Cargill, and Butterball also have poultry-processing plants in the area—relatives followed. In 2008, a Marshallese consulate opened just off of Springdale’s main street.

As climate change has intensified over the past decade, “the numbers have been getting larger each year,” Melisa Laelan, the founder and head of the Arkansas Coalition of Marshallese, told me. Laelan is a Marshallese princess and grew up in Majuro. When she was seventeen, she joined the U.S. military and served for ten years, including stints in Bosnia and Afghanistan. She eventually settled in northwest Arkansas in the two-thousands and got a job as a court translator. In 2011, she founded the organization to support Marshallese citizens, a third of whom now live in the United States. The population in the islands is slightly more than fifty thousand. 

Although thousands of Marshallese migrants live in Hawaii, Washington, Oregon, California, and other states, the concentration in the U.S. is greatest in northwest Arkansas, where population estimates hover between twelve and fifteen thousand. In light of the threat that climate change poses to the Marshall Islands, Laelan sees it as her mission to continue building a social infrastructure so that islanders in Arkansas can thrive. “We gotta prepare our community for the future,” Laelan said. “This is the Springdale Atoll. We are surrounded by Marshallese.”

11 Female Abstract Expressionists You Should Know, from Joan Mitchell to Alma Thomas

Abstract Expressionism is largely remembered as a movement defined by the paint-slinging, hard-drinking machismo of its poster boys Jackson Pollock and Willem de Kooning. But the women who helped develop and push the style forward have largely fallen out of the art-historical spotlight, marginalized during their careers (and now in history books) as students, disciples, or wives of the their more-famous male counterparts rather than pioneers in their own right. (An exception is Helen Frankenthaler, whose transcendent oeuvre is often the only female practice referred to in scholarship and exhibitions around action painting.)

Even when these artists were invited into the members- and male-only Eighth Street Club to discuss abstraction and its ability to channel emotional states—as was the case with Perle Fine, Joan Mitchell, and Mary Abbott—their work rarely sold as well or was written about as widely or favorably. And these women received far fewer solo exhibitions than their male contemporaries. Some even changed their names, like Michael West, in an effort to combat the era’s sexism, or incorporated into their work tacit challenges to the status quo, as Elaine de Kooning did in her “Faceless Men” series.

Now in a long-overdue exhibition at the Denver Art Museum, a sizable, boundary-pushing group of female Abstract Expressionists are finally getting their due. Below, we spotlight some of the most innovative practitioners (admittedly, there are many more than 11).

Lee Krasner
b. 1908, Brooklyn, NY
d. 1984, New York, NY

Lee Krasner

Burning Candles, 1955

American Federation of Arts

Lee Krasner

Four, 1957

San Francisco Museum of Modern Art (SFMOMA) 

In 1937, after several years studying with artist Hans Hofmann at his eponymous school, Krasner painted a work that Hofmann described as “so good you would not know that it was done by a woman.” Throughout her career, Krasner, one of the earliest and most innovative AbEx practitioners, would struggle against the marginalization of women artists, even changing her first name from Lena to the gender-ambiguous Lee in the 1940s.

While she introduced her husband, Jackson Pollock, to the ideas and key progenitors of the movement for which he would become the posterboy, her relation to Pollock often superceded her own reputation as an artist. Krasner is one of the few artists on this list who saw a retrospective of her work mounted during her lifetime (in 1983, a year before her death). But her paintings, which burst with fierce, swooping lines and swollen shapes reminiscent of body parts, have only recently begun to receive their due as integral to shaping Abstract Expressionism and its legacy. Her 1957 magnum opus, The Seasons, which stretches 17 feet wide, is now the centerpiece of the Whitney Museum’s seventh-floor hanging.

Elaine de Kooning
b. 1918, Brooklyn, NY
d. 1989, Southampton, NY

Elaine de Kooning

Bacchus #3, 1978

National Museum of Women in the Arts

De Kooning was a fixture of New York’s tight-knit Abstract Expressionist cohort, which included her husband Willem de Kooning, though she set herself apart by making portraits. Her compositions were edged with the movement’s high-octane gestures, as well as her own frustration with the marginalization of female artists. Her “Faceless Men” series, for instance, obscured the features of her more famous male contemporaries, like post-war poet and art critic Frank O’Hara. They were unveiled at her first solo exhibition at the Stable Gallery in 1952.

A sense of quivering energy pervades all facets of de Kooning’s diverse body of work, which also includes ebullient abstractions inspired by landscapes, bullfights, and the Lascaux cave paintings. “I wanted a sense of surfaces being in motion,” she explained of her canvases. A frequent contributor to ARTNews, she was also a passionate and eloquent exponent of the AbEx cause, expressing the movement’s animus succinctly, with phrases like: “A painting to me is primarily a verb, not a noun, an event first and only secondarily an image.”

Perle Fine
b. 1905, Boston, MA
d. 1988, Southampton, NY

Perle Fine

Summer I, 1958-1959

"Women of Abstract Expressionism" at Denver Art Museum, Denver 

Perle Fine

Early Morning Garden, 1957

"Women of Abstract Expressionism" at Denver Art Museum, Denver 

In the early 1940s, when Fine was in her mid-30s, she rented a small, cold water flat that doubled as her studio on Manhattan’s 8th Street, the main drag of Abstract Expressionist activity and discussion. Across the street, the Hans Hofmann School buzzed with students eager to set objectivity aside and take up pure abstraction—Fine was one of them. Around the corner, Hofmann, de Kooning, and other AbEx pioneers discussed painting and swilled booze at The Club, their members-only haunt. Fine was one of the first and very few women allowed through its doors.

After moving to East Hampton with her husband, the photographer and art director Maurice Berezov, Fine made some of her most ambitious paintings—compositions that surged with deep passages of black paint and textured areas of collage. She worked on the floor to create these, moving across them using an elevated plank. Despite her innovative exploration of Abstract Expressionism, which she fused with an interest in the pure forms of Neo-Plasticism, Fine was not included in the Whitney’s 1978 show “Abstract Expressionism: The Formative Years,” which she contested in two letters to the museum. She later became a renowned professor at Hofstra University, but stated: “I never thought of myself as a student or teacher, but as a painter. When I paint something I am very much aware of the future. If I feel something will not stand up 40 years from now, I am not interested.”

Michael West
b. 1908, Chicago
d. 1991 New York

Michael (Corinne) West

Gento Niese, 1978

Heather James Fine Art

Michael (Corinne) West

Cythera Shrine, 1979

Heather James Fine Art

Like Krasner, West was an early adopter of Abstract Expressionism and one of the movement’s boldest artists. As early as 1932, she studied with Hofmann alongside the painter-gallerist Betty Parsons and artist Louise Nevelson, but soon moved to other instructors because, as stated in her plucky style, she’d had “enough of maestros.” At the time, she made paintings that mingled elements of Cubism and Neo-Plasticism, but soon moved towards abstraction, a shift no doubt influenced by her intimate relationship with painter Arshile Gorky (she refused his marriage proposals several times, choosing independence).

In the late 1930s, they together concocted a new, masculine first name for West, who was born Corinne Michelle. She returned to New York after a stint in Rochester, and a 1945 exhibition included her work alongside the likes of Milton Avery and Mark Rothko. After the war, she responded to the fear and frustration of the atomic age with angry lashings of pigment; she often covered earlier paintings with new tangles of seething brushwork. They became thick, turbid all-over abstractions, painted directly from the tube or with a palette knife, embedded with sand and detritus, and imbued with existential titles like “Nihilism” and “Atonement.” Despite her innovations and efforts to fight the marginalization she felt as a woman (changing her name, dressing in menswear), she is largely left out of history books and exhibitions on avant-garde art of the 1940s and Abstract Expressionism.

Alma Thomas
b. 1891, Columbia, GA
d. 1978, Washington, DC

Alma Thomas

Untitled, c. 1958, ca. 1958

Vallarino Fine Art

Alma Thomas

Untitled, ca. 1958, ca. 1958

Vallarino Fine Art

While Thomas, who is featured in a solo exhibition at the Studio Museum in Harlem this summer, is best known for her geometric compositions of blazing color, her early paintings from the 1950s are rooted in the AbEx style, which unlocked her nimble experiments with hue and form. In 1924, she was the first graduate of Howard University’s fledgling Fine Art program, but she devoted the majority of her adult life to teaching high school, until she focused on her practice once again in 1950. Her all-over canvases evince a deep curiosity with color and its ability to convey emotion. Often inspired by landscapes, science, and the cosmos, they pulse with their deftly modulated palettes. Light blues bleed into darks with a sense of rushing, fluid movement.

Joan Mitchell
b. 1925, Chicago, IL
d. 1992, Paris, France

Joan Mitchell

Untitled, 1977

Cheim & Read

Joan Mitchell

Bracket, 1989

San Francisco Museum of Modern Art (SFMOMA) 

When Mitchell settled in New York in 1950, after receiving her BFA at the Art Institute of Chicago, she immediately became a mainstay on the avant-garde scene, thanks to her fiery wit and exuberant abstractions that married writhing, lyrical lines with searing colors rendered like staccato notes. She was influenced not only by her contemporary painters, but also by writers and musicians—poet Frank O’Hara was a close friend, she was infatuated with jazz, and she frequented a bar where Miles Davis and Tennessee Williams were regulars.

In 1951, Mitchell was one of a handful of women included in the history-making “Ninth Street Show,” which cemented Abstract Expressionism as a movement to watch—as well as her own place amongst older practitioners like the de Koonings, Robert Motherwell, Hans Hofmann, Krasner, Pollock, and more. She became known as one of several “Second Generation” female Abstract Expressionists, along with Helen Frankenthaler and Grace Hartigan, and earned a coveted place at The Club, where she slung her ardent, often scathing opinions in salon conversations. “I’ve always painted out of omnipotence,” she once said.

In 1952, around the time her marriage ended in divorce (Mitchell is one of the few better-known women Abstract Expressionists who was not married to a famous male painter), she made good on her bold statements and mounted her first New York solo show. It would galvanize a steady stream of exhibitions in both the U.S. and Europe until her death. 

Mary Abbott
b. 1921, New York, NY

Mary Abbott


Vallarino Fine Art

Mary Abbott

All Green, 1954

"Women of Abstract Expressionism" at Denver Art Museum, Denver 

In the early 1940s, around the time when she was modeling for Vogue and Harper’s Bazaar, Abbott began taking classes at New York’s Art Student League. After separating from her husband in 1946, she settled on 10th Street among the Abstract Expressionists and took classes at Subjects of the Artist School, founded by Robert Motherwell in his 8th Street studio. Soon, she was making towering canvases characterized by sweeping brushstrokes that often merged into dense swarms of torrid, sensuous color inspired by annual winter trips to Haiti and the Virgin Islands.

Her broad brushstrokes were informed, in part, by her then-nascent dialogue with Willem de Kooning, who would be a lifelong sounding board and friend. She, like Mitchell, was also involved in the literary community and, in the late 1950s, began embedding text into her Action paintings as part of a collaboration with the New York School poet Barbara Guest. Painting at her home in the Hamptons to this day, she often describes her objective to “define the poetry of living space” through her work.

Jay DeFeo
b.1929 Hanover, NH
d. 1989, Oakland, CA

Left: Jay DeFeo, Untitled (Mountain series – Everest), 1955. © 2016 The Jay DeFeo Foundation/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York; Right: Jay DeFeo, Origin, 1956. © 2016 The Jay DeFeo Foundation/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Images courtesy of The Jay DeFeo Foundation.

Born Mary Joan DeFeo, the enigmatic San Francisco painter assumed the nickname Jay and began making art in junior high school, mentored by an artist-neighbor named Michelangelo, while living in San Jose. She went on to study art at Berkeley, where she won a fellowship that prompted a trip to Europe and her first important series, a group of abstract paintings that fused her interests in Abstract Expressionism, Italian architecture, and prehistoric art. They also helped to introduce the use of a monochrome palette to all-over abstraction. By 1953, after a stop in New York, she was back in San Francisco and became a fast fixture on the scene, and a neighbor and friend to fellow artists Joan Brown, Sonia Gechtoff, David Getz, and others. 

Over the decade, her work became thick with gesture, impasto, and mixed media, a shift that culminated in a terrifically imposing work that was as much her crucible as her magnum opus. DeFeo spent eight years, from 1958 to 1966, working solely on The Rose, a painting-cum-sculpture measuring over 10-feet tall, almost one-foot thick, and weighing over 2,000 pounds. An eviction noticed forced her to cease work on the piece, and also induced a several-year hiatus from artmaking. She only returned to the studio in the 1970s.

While the atmosphere in San Francisco was arguably less misogynistic than in New York, DeFeo no doubt still felt the gender inequalities of her time. In his review of DeFeo’s posthumous 2012-2013 retrospective—her first—at SFMOMA and the Whitney Museum, critic Peter Schjeldahl hypothesized the origins of her obsession with The Rose: “I surmise that she was hampered by, even while being nurtured on, a scene that was dominated by men… It’s conceivable that her withdrawal into obsessively reworking The Rose amounted to a tacit protest—a standup strike—against the pressures of her milieu.”

Sonia Gechtoff
b.1926, Philadelphia, PA

Sonia Gechtoff

Red Icon, 1962

Anita Shapolsky Gallery

Sonia Gechtoff

The Beginning, 1960

"Women of Abstract Expressionism" at Denver Art Museum, Denver 

In 1951, Gechtoff moved from Philadelphia to San Francisco, where she installed her studio in “Painterland,” an affectionately titled building on Fillmore Street that was home to a bevy of abstract painters, including DeFeo, with whom she developed a friendship but also a rivalry. In this new environment, Gechtoff developed a unique approach: She coated a palette knife with several colors, then smeared them with swooping gestures onto her canvases. The lively paintings were celebrated, winning her a solo museum show at the de Young as early as 1957 and a spot in the Guggenheim’s seminal 1954 group exhibition “Younger American Painters” alongside de Kooning, Pollock, Franz Kline, and more—though it’s only recently that the historical influence of her work has been recognized and revived.

Grace Hartigan
b. 1922, Newark, NJ
d. 2008, Timonium, MD

Grace Hartigan

New York City Rhapsody, 1960

"Women of Abstract Expressionism" at Denver Art Museum, Denver 

Grace Hartigan

Ocean Bathers, 1953

C. Grimaldis Gallery

Another second-generation New York Abstract Expressionist, Hartigan (who occasionally showed under the pseudonym “George”) assumed but also challenged the non-objective style of her forebears, like de Kooning and Pollock, the latter whose work she saw for the first time at Betty Parsons Gallery in 1948. Though filled with shards of color and active gesture, her canvases never completely relinquished content. Often, they were embedded with social commentary that questioned the traditional role of women.

A 1954 series “Grand Street Brides” interrogated the construct of marriage by abstracting bridal shop mannequins (Hartigan married and divorced a handful of times). Other series, like her “Matador” paintings, explored sexual identity or incorporated elements from urban life and popular culture, although she passionately disapproved of the burgeoning Pop Art movement. Unlike most women of the time, her work sold well, especially after her inclusion—as the only woman—in MoMA’s 1956 show “Twelve Americans,” which also featured paintings by Philip Guston and Franz Kline and resulted in the sale of her largest work to Nelson Rockefeller. But while she showed consistently in solo gallery shows and group museum exhibitions through the 1970s, interest dropped off in the mid-’70s, after which she taught and showed only sporadically until her death in 2008.

Judith Godwin
b. 1930, Suffolk, VA

Judith Godwin

Infidel, 1979

Berry Campbell Gallery

Judith Godwin

Epic, 1959

"Women of Abstract Expressionism" at Denver Art Museum, Denver 

In 1950, Godwin, who was studying art in Virginia, met and befriended dancer and choreographer Martha Graham. The fateful run-in inspired Godwin to relocate to New York, where she began painting in abstract and with a dynamism influenced by Graham. In some paintings, you can almost feel the arc of her arm as it swooped across the canvas. “I can see her gestures in everything I do,” she once said of Graham.

Godwin fused this theatrical sense of movement with Hofmann’s color theories to produce rich tonal combinations. A long-term dialogue with Japanese painter Kenzo Okada also guided her practice and bolstered her interest in Zen Buddhism, as well as her intuitive approach to abstract painting. “When I recognize an emerging form, I respond intuitively by evolving complimentary sub-forms in colors and applications which feel supportive and foster development,” she said. “In studying color and its behavior, I have learned to trust my intuition.”

—Alexxa Gotthardt / United Photo Press 2017
Cover image: Perle Fine in her studio, 1959. Image courtesy of the Denver Museum; Jay DeFeo in front of an early stage of The Rose, 1961. Photograph by Marty Sacco (San Francisco Examiner). © 2016 The Jay DeFeo Foundation/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Courtesy of The Jay DeFeo Foundation; Portrait of Alma Thomas © Michael Fischer, 1976. Courtesy of the National Museum of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.; Judith Godwin, 1977. © Judith Godwin. Courtesy of the Denver Museum; Sonia Gechtoff in her studio, ca. 1961–62. Courtesy of Sonia Gechtoff and the Denver Museum; Mary Abbott in her studio, ca. 1949–50. Courtesy of McCormick Gallery, Chicago, and the Denver Museum.

Color film was built for white people. Here's what it did to dark skin.

The biased film was fixed in the 1990s, so why do so many photos still distort darker skin?

For decades, the color film available to consumers was built for white people. The chemicals coating the film simply weren't adequate to capture a diversity of darker skin tones. And the photo labs established in the 1940s and 50s even used an image of a white woman, called a Shirley card, to calibrate the colors for printing:

Concordia University professor Lorna Roth has researched the evolution of skin tone imaging. She explained in a 2009 paper how the older technology distorted the appearance of black subjects:

Problems for the African-American community, for example, have included reproduction of facial images without details, lighting challenges, and ashen-looking facial skin colours contrasted strikingly with the whites of eyes and teeth.

How this would affect non-white people seemingly didn't occur to those who designed and operated the photo systems. In an essay for Buzzfeed, writer and photographer Syreeta McFadden described growing up with film that couldn't record her actual appearance:

The inconsistencies were so glaring that for a while, I thought it was impossible to get a decent picture of me that captured my likeness. I began to retreat from situations involving group photos. And sure, many of us are fickle about what makes a good portrait. But it seemed the technology was stacked against me. I only knew, though I didn’t understand why, that the lighter you were, the more likely it was that the camera — the film — got your likeness right.

Many of the technological biases have since been corrected (though, not all of them, as explained in the video above). Still, we often see controversies about the misrepresentation of non-white subjects in magazines and advertisements. What are we to make of the fact that these images routinely lighten the skin of women of color?

Tools are only as good as the people who use them. The learned preference for lighter skin is ubiquitous in many parts of the world, and it starts early. That's an infinitely tougher problem than improving the color range of photo technology.

4K Ultra HD Camera: 7 Quick Step-by-Step Answers

What is 4k camera?

If you have been buying a camera just recently,youwill possibly have seen the term '4K video clip'. 4K aspect camera which shoots 4k videos is far more thorough than anything you are likely to have seen before. 4K is significantly much more detailed, since it has twice as numerous pixels horizontally, two times vertically that is 4 times as numerous pixels in overall. This provides 4 times the resolution of HD camera. 

That is 4 times even more information. There are two sorts of 4K: DCI (Digital Cinema Initiative) using 4096 x 2160 pixels with an aspect ratio of 17:9, which is exactly what movie theater projectors use, as well as UHD, utilizing 3840 x 2160 pixels with an aspect ratio of 16:9, which is exactly what manyTVs utilize. A camera efficient in shooting high-definition, 1080p video is superb, but a 4k camera capable of recording four times the information is extraordinary. 

There are some factors why 4K has drawn plainly in advance of 1080P regarding high image quality. 4K gives us a lot a lot more control in post-production over your pictures.Resizing, cropping, stabilization, and smaller grain (less noise) all benefit from increased resolution. A 4K camera gets video that is much clearer and also sharper compared to the 1080p camera. It is crisp, and it also looks great when checked out on a huge TV. 4K is rapidly coming to be the industry standard for capturing video, with a raising variety of attribute films, tv programs, or even amateur video clips being shot in the format. As 4K Ultra HD TVs are becoming cheaper and as the 4k content is increasing with time, it'scertain that it will certainly come to be the brand-new criterion, both in broadcasting and online.

4k camera vs 1080p camera

The most evident benefit of the the4K camera is the resolution. With an HD frame being around 2 megapixels and also a 4K UHD framework being 8 megapixels. The detail is startling. 4K is likewise called Ultra Hd (UHD), while 1080P is simply Full Hd. As their names suggest, 4K UHD has a significantly greater resolution than 1080P HD video clip. 4K resolution is 3840 x 2160 pixels, whilst 1080P consists of 1920 x 1080 pixels. 

These brand-new modern technologies enable users to record the sharpest video clip footage yet as well as edit without worry of losing high quality, people at big are constantly searching for better, sharper or even more detailed picture quality. 4K is obtaining grip out there with cameras that are, reasonably talking, cheap compared to the performance they provide. A camera efficient in shooting high-definition, 1080p video is superb, but a camera with the ability of capturing4 times the detail is extraordinary. A 4K camera obtains video clip that is much clearer and sharper compared to the 1080p camera. Couple of various other benefits of 4k camera over 1080p are as follows

Resolving Detail :

Ultra High Definition TVs using 4K innovation have the ability to reproduce the most intricate of details in a significantly higher comparison fashion compared to 1080p.
Scaling down:

4k downscaled to 1080p with a decent bitrate looks extra "dense" and detailed than 1080p originally. Shrinking down 4k video footage to 1080p is a night and day difference detail as well as quality. Down-sampling can also help minimize noise as well as grain making the video footage appear to be cleaner too.
Stabilizing Video footage in Post:

If your 1080p video is already soft, cropping in an additional 20% will certainly make it pointless. Capturing in 4k will certainly offer you enough pixels to have fun with so that effects like video stabilizing will have no noticeable effect on your finished video clip.
Cropping Video footage In Post:

You have listened to digital photographers say for the last One Decade: "I like having, even more, megapixels because it provides me more cropping choices." An advantage of 4K: you can zoom & crop a 4K broad shot to give you a close-up without loss of high quality. Wonderful for industrial manufacturing even if you are still outputting 1080p. Chances are, you have never considered cropping your video clip footage because it had not been an option. When you have experienced the flexibility of recomposing a shot after you have shot it, you will never wants to go back.
Perfect Pans as well as Zooms:

If you shoot 4k, tiny pans and zooms have never been much easier. Including these activities to your video in post will really look much better compared to anything you could do in the field and since 4k offers you numerous added pixels to work with, your completed product will certainly look remarkable. For much of your videos you end up setting 2cameras in nearly the same placement, one capturing wide as well as the other shooting tight. One 4k camera might quickly replace this 2camera arrangement.

4k video Is Good Enough To Draw Still Frames:

Not only is most 4k video great enough to change requirement still pictures on the internet, 4k still frames are really good sufficient to print. In 1 second of 4K video, you get 30 photos.
Closer Viewing:

Thanks to the huge increase in resolution that 4K has compared to 1080P, it enables the visitor to be positioned a lot closer to a big screen while enjoying its supreme clearness. In other words, you could rest twice as near to a 4K display compared to a conventional high definition screen without being able to see the pixelation that accompanies the reduced definition selection. This is an excellent advantage for watching or editing and enhancing 4k video clips. There are a couple of drawbacks of shooting with a 4k camera. 

The enhanced resolution has a price: the data is four-times larger compared to HD. Your whole pipe needs to be durable to ingest, removal, manipulate, and also shop four-times extra information. An average 4K data tends to be a lot bigger than HD, considering that so much extra data is included. 

The fact is, with the introduction of larger, less costly and faster memory cards, various other storage space devices as well as the consistent release of consumer-priced cameras that could shoot 4K web content, the shooting side of 4K is no more difficult compared to with typical 1080p HD. While there is currently limited capability to outcome 4K as a result of the rate as well as accessibility of 4K TVs, being able to shoot in 4K helps distinguish yourself from others. 

Also, shooting in 4K is a technique of future proofing. Given that 4K will certainly become ever before a lot more conventional over the following couple of years, having 4K video now aids keep you at the front of the contour. If you purchase an HD camera over a 4K camera, it will certainly have a minimal life expectancy. The number of NTSC cameras do you see on the racks today? Few. Within a couple of years, there will certainly not be too many HD cameras around either. Whatever is moving toward 4K and also past. As soon as you recognize precisely just what 4K is, you could start to appreciate its true abilities as well as its evident benefits over 1080p.

What do I need to upgrade to shoot in 4k?

As fantastic as 4K is, the added resolution might suggest that you should update parts of, or possibly all your manufacturing pipeline. This could include sd card, screens, disk drives, computers, and also possibly even lenses. It depends. In the same way, as 4K video clip calls for much room to store physically, it also needs a lot more processing power to manage it when it concerns modifying the video footage. 

Editing 4k video does not just call for an effective computer system; you will also need specific video modifying the software. As always when checking out computer system performance, the important points to think about are CPU rate, the graphics card, how much RAM is installed, and the type as well as the capability of the disk drive. 4K video footage takes up a whole lot, even more, area than full HD - up to four times extra. You will require at the very least a 7200rpm conventional hard drive on a USB 3.0 or faster connection, and also as much storage space as you can manage. 

To stay up to date with all that data, you will need a quick flash memory card, efficient in at the very least 30MB each second write speed (which corresponds to the U3 rating on SD cards). This need to permit recording at high-quality settings up to around 200mbps. You require a quick hard drive or solid-state drive, along with a super-fast Web as well as network link if you prepare to share the video clip that you take with your 4K camera. If you are trying to find a solitary screen workflow, watch out for the 'IPS' classification. IPS panels transcend when it involves color accuracy at various seeing angles. If you already have a color-accurate display, you can choose an added, much more budget-oriented 4K monitor for cutting video footage with each other, as well as proceed to do shade grading on the older monitor.

Do I really need a 4K camera?

Everything depends on exactly what you need it for. If you are professional/ semi-professional professional photographer or a videographer, then most certainly you must consider upgrading to 4k. On the other hand, if you are amateur or need a camera for laid-back use, then 1080p is good enough. Professional/Semi-professional In the situation of professional shooting, shooting 4K video is a preferable option, not only for the clarity and color which is an evident gain, the actual value is in the data it records and the flexibility it gives you in your production operations. 

4K frameworks can generate a terrific bargain of adaptability in a timeline, such an online zooming as well as panning to obtain the best "shots" from a bigger field. Rather compared to picking your shot at the time of capture, you could record a much larger scene with 4K and also after that choose the tighter "shot" in a message within a timeline, probably also several timelines from a solitary 4K resource. If you have an editor that could refine 4K after that, you have the high-end of doing message production zoom and scene cropping without loosing image top quality. Also if you are creating 1080p material, utilizing 4k cameras would certainly still be a far better option, 4k downscaled to 1080p with a suitable bitrate looks much more "dense" and also thorough than 1080p originally. 4K is a massive benefit. 

An additional benefit of shooting 4k videos is that it gives you the ability to extract an 8MP image from your video. That suffices for a wonderful sized print or even an ad in a publication. Think about it as a method of shooting 24, 25 or 30 photos (8MP) per second and also you might start to understand the allure. Whether it is a child's short smile after blowing out their birthday celebration candle lights or a match-winning objective being racked up, this shooting rate could assist make certain you record the best moment. In 1 second of 4K video footage, you obtain 30 pictures. Fast-moving race cars and trucks are tough based on frame correctly, though, with numerous pictures to choose from, you are more probable to obtain a keeper. 

The 4k video has four times the overall resolution of HD. All those extra pixels can likewise come in handy for supporting your video. If you are functioning from 4K, you have a substantial amount of additional pixels to play with. 4K will certainly be the following large point in the globe of the video clip. The only legitimate debate is spending plan, which will transform over the coming months as the the4k camera continues to drop in cost. That means that there truly is no reason not to shoot 4K content to ensure you have the greatest high quality possible, also if you just have an HD output alternative. 

Casual function/ Family holidays To cut to the chase, if you desire a camera for the casual purpose, it is better you stick with the good old 1080p cameras. It does not make any sense to spend extra money on 4k if an HD camera could do an excellent work for you. The question you should also ask yourself is what do you get from a 4k resolution that you do not already obtain with 1080p. There are reasons 4K can make good sense. Whether it is a child’s brief smile after blowing out their birthday candles or a match-winning goal being scored, this shooting speed can make sure you capture the best moment. 

The quality of the picture would certainly be much better, sharper, comprehensive and also more realistic compared to HD. If you are shooting motion picture landscapes, you could wish to think about the greater resolution to make the most of the detail retention. Likewise, shooting in 4K does provide for latitude in post-production. 4K most certainly is the future, and you are certainly going to have 4k technology in your home sooner or later on, so the only concern is when? 4k cameras can assist you to produce contents which would assist you in re-visiting your past in best means possible. If 4K is an alternative get it.

Is 4k camera worth it?

4K has 4 times resolution of HD, which gives sharper, comprehensive and much more reasonable picture. It s not all just about pixel count, greater frame rates.Generally 60fps, are suggested and also much better picture deepness also. So while 2K and HD production remain the mainstream, making use of 4K is certainly growing. I do not think 4K UHD is an additional elegant pattern or advertising and marketing trick to earn us spend our tough gained dollars on something that will certainly become obsolete before the year s end. 

I genuinely see 4K UHD as a natural change, or evolutionary action, in display resolution. There are several benefits of shooting in higher resolution also if your final result is going to remain in a reduced resolution. Sharpness Scaling down an image lessens the absence of emphasis assumption and also visually looks somewhat sharper compared to the initial size. A greater resolution data might save you in such situation. For video clip running out emphasis is not that poor as for a still image. 

Sharpness is something you desire. Scaling down the video is just like scaling down a still photo. Lots of focus and intensity imperfections may be covered. Situations of somewhat out of focus scenes could be "fixed" conveniently by scaling down a greater resolution video. Cropping. As videos are sets of still pictures, the same technological operations relate to them also. If you wish to re-crop your image a greater resolution camera may be helpful. You could do that on a 2K camera too, although it will lead to a much less than a 2K framework. Saving Time Shooting Cut-ins. Higher resolution videos could be utilized not just for dealing with in-camera make-up. It can be made use of to save time recording a scene several times for medium or close-up shots. With huge image measurements, the video editors could get hold of a portion of the frame and produce even more cut-ins. Bigger video frameworks can be beneficial for integrating components of them in visual results. To supply premium quality video footage in 2K, they shoot these in 4K. 

The major advantage of shooting in 4k is in post production as seen in the above situations, 4K gives us a lot more control in post-production over our photos. Resizing, cropping, stabilizing, as well as smaller grain (much less noise) all gain from increased resolution. Article production centers will certainly have to satisfy the needs of the higher resolution blog post and develop their systems as well as creative tools to meet the increasing trend of 4K production for both function film as well as broadcast tv. 4K tv, as well as a 4k monitor, now supports 4K video at 60 fps, 

High Effectiveness Video Coding (HEVC), as well as 10-bit shade depth. Individuals at large are looking for premium choices in innovation, 4k, a lot of certainly is one of them. You should understand your top priorities when shooting video. Content is always king. It is the photo and also sound. The resolution is something you could utilize to your advantage. It will not make or break the end product, yet It could obviously enhance it if you did the tale, visuals, and also audio well.

Can I afford 4k camera?

Gone are those days, when you had to make a lifestyle change to save money to buy a good camera. It is a myth that 4k cameras are expensive. They are pricey compared to 1080p, but the cost is plummeting at such an astonishing rate that if you are thinking of buying a new camera, you cannot refrain yourself from buying a 4k resolution. 

Apart from the picture clarity, the post production is also a huge advantage for 4k content, and all that comes at the similar price of the 1080p cameras. Except for DSLRs, to upgrade to 4k, you need to give it a serious thought. 4k DSLRs are much expensive than 1080p DSLRs, unlike the trivial difference between 4k action cameras, camcorders and even mirrorless cameras with their 1080p counterparts. If you are buying a 4k action camera or camcorder, you can have them for less than $1000; some are even cheaper than $500. 4k Mirrorless cameras come in the range of $800 and $2500. However, for a good DSLR, you have to stretch your budget to $6000. It all depends on your needs after all a camera is just a tool. You do not always need a great camera to shoot amazing pictures, what matters is, who is behind the camera. However, again, it is always worth spending on good cameras. 4K no doubt is the future, it is always better to start off creating 4k contents as early as possible

Which are the best 4k cameras on market today?

After researching various articles, going through numerous review sites, reading many blogs and considering experts opinion with trust worthy content, we have tried our best to compile a list of best 4k cameras available on the market. Few of the models are released in previous years but are consistently doing better than the new releases. We have not biased the research on just the new models, which some people prefer, but we have tried to filter out the best that is available on the market as of today. 

We have also included few new promising models, which are not yet that common, but according to many experts test reviews, they are surely better than the competitors and will be in demand in short time. The most important factor in compiling this list was ‘value for money.' We have tried, not to include expensive items in the list unless and until they are worth it. If you find any overpriced item in the list, be assured that you will get what you are paying for. 

Well, we are not claiming it to be just our opinion, we are just trying to present the collective conviction of all the experts and their years of experience, not from one but numerous websites, articles, blogs and all other sources of information available. If you like, you can spend time doing the research yourself and come to the same conclusion as we did in the below list.

We're halfway through 2019 and we've already welcomed a handful of excellent 4K-capable cameras, from Canon and Fujifilm through to Panasonic and Sony. 

With Panasonic and Canon having started new systems from scratch in recent months, these may well end up reshaping the market as a whole in years to come. But right now, our pick of the 4K crop is centred around cameras from more established lines that have proven themselves in the hands on professionals.

1. Blackmagic Pocket Cinema Camera 4K

2. Panasonic Lumix GH5S
3. Panasonic Lumix GH5
4. Sony Alpha A7S II
5. Sony Alpha A6500
6. Nikon D850
7. Olympus OM-D E-M1 Mark II
8. Fujifilm X-T3
9. Nikon Z6
10. Sony Cyber-shot RX10 IV