Carlos Alves de Sousa
United Photo Press
Executive President
SPECIAL REPORT: August 19 - International Day of Photography

Congratulations to all members of United Photo Press , to the World Photography Day...

In the world completely imagery as is ours today, photography is present at all times. Be ordinary cameras, digital, mobile and other gadjets, the image has become a central element in this mediatized world, which is no more than a "global village photographic."

But today the picture has such a prominent and can be changed, transformed and manipulated, much is due to the inventors of this concept.

Two French noteworthy in this discovery:

Joseph Nicéphore Niépce and Jean Jacques Mandé Daguerre. Niépce was the precursor, combining elements of chemistry and physics, héliographie created in 1926. In this invention he joined the principle of shrimp bscura, used by artists since the sixteenth century, the característicafotossensível of silver salts. After the death of Niepce, Daguerre perfected the invention, renaming it as daguerreotype.

 By this time a Frenchman living in Brazil, Hércules Florence, also developed experiments that would lead to the same result. But the advent of photography was officially announced to the world in Paris, at the Academy of Sciences of France, consecrating the Daguerreotype, on August 19, 1839.

Since then the picture has changed considerably and was largely responsible for introducing the world to mankind. Even with the emergence of other forms of displaying images (cinema, television, computer) the picture remains the only "able to capture the human soul." Or, how would Henri Cartier-Bresson, one of the greatest photographers of all time "photography is to capture the decisive moment."

Photography is a recording technique by chemical or mechanical means and digital image in a layer of material sensitive to light exposure, designated as its medium.

The word derives from the Greek words AEEA [fossil] ("light"), and ³ Á ± Æ ¹ Â [GRAFIS] ("style", "paintbrush") or ³ Á ± Æ · Grafe, meaning "drawing with light" or "representation by means lines "," draw ".

Essence photography A discussion on the use of photography is preceded by an attempt to understand its image, which occurs since its development by various photographers throughout the nineteenth century (as Geoffrey Batchen says). His artistic character evident constitutes an obstacle to its use by the social sciences, while its scientific character to become something of a subordinate in the art field, characteristics that seem to reverse in the second half of the twentieth century, as it means that if the study deepened, the social sciences were opened to the impossibility of complete objectivity, and the field of art has to deal strongly with the idea, as opposed to an emphasis on the art form.

Historical studies on Photo begin around one hundred years after its invention. Already theoretical studies on Photography seem to start in the post-war, and the primary theory used to characterize Photography comes from the field of semiotics, or semiology of Saussure's declines.

On a strict reading of the work of Charles Sanders Peirce, defining the field of semiotics, to Photography define yourself from the three categories of signs that exist in order of importance and dependence on each other: the icon, which is a representation of a qualitative object - for example, by analogy (in the case of the photographic image), the index that characterizes a sign which refers to the significant causation or the contiguity (sometimes as a index differential, and in reading Umberto Eco), and symbol, whose relationship with the signifier is arbitrary and defined by a convention (in the case of a flag of a country, for example).

However, initial studies of Photography, as well as artists throughout the nineteenth century and twentieth worried about the problem of iconicity of Photography, that is, the potential of your image and character of its realism. The first sign of this type of questioning discourse is the work of Walter Benjamin, whose text "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction," reveals a concern with modifying the reception of photography and film in relation to traditional means of art, pioneering and highly influential study that takes instances unique, like the problem of aura (as distinct from classical art) as well as the multiplication of massive image.

It is the work of Roland Barthes we see a second moment of trying to deal with Photography as a medium. Barthes's work involves the construction of structuralism, and his reading of the work of Peirce. But the universe of Barthes is not limited to the universe of the sign: his great book on Photography, "Camera Clara," has a phenomenological point of view (which refers to the noema Photo concept of Husserl's phenomenology) and uses elements of Lacanian psychoanalysis. Throughout the work of Barthes, the Photo is read in a dialogical key feature of structuralism, implying the creation of concepts such as connotation and denotation, or obtuse and obvious, until the development of the pair studium / punctum, that there are more poles between which the photograph exists, but states of Photography: how studium, Photography exhibits itself as indifferent object of study, while the punctum expression defines the establishment of a phenomenon in which subject and photo if affect.

One of the legacies of reading Barthes on photography is the perception of the importance of the concept of "index", which is developed further in the works of Rosalind Krauss (in "Photo" and "The originality of the Vanguard"), Jean Marie Schaeffer ("The poor image"), and Philippe Dubois ("Act Photo"). This relationship has not only been used in the art field, as indicated by Krauss, but is allowing the use of increasingly Photography in the social sciences.

Device makers image

The Photography stabilizes as industrial process in the twentieth century articulating a camera or darkroom, as image forming device and image recording mode light - a photosensitive surface, which can be photographic film, photographic paper or, in the case of photography digital, a digital sensor CCD / CMOS that transforms light into a map of electrical impulses, which are stored as data on a digital storage card. In this process there is an evident relationship between the photograph and its analogous processes. For example, photocopy or xerographic machine, form permanent images but uses the transfer of static electrical charges rather than photographic film, it comes the term electrophotography. In raiografia, released by Man Ray in 1922 are images produced by the shadows of objects on photographic paper, without the use of camera. And objects can be placed directly on the scanner (scanner) to produce pictures electronically.

Photographers control the camera to expose the photosensitive material (or film) to light, which changes qualitatively and quantitatively according to the possibilities of each instrument. The controls are generally interconnected, for example, exposure varies the opening (which determines the amount of light) multiplied by the shutter speed (which determines an exposure time), which varies the pitch of the picture, the depth photographic field and the degree of temporal cutoff model photographed. Different focal lengths of the lenses allow to vary the depth of iagem conformation, as well as its angle.

The controls of the cameras may include:

 FocusAperture LensExposure time (speed or aperture)Of fixed focal length lenses: (tele-lens, wide-angle or normal), or variable (zoom)Sensitivity MoviePhotometer

Uses photography

Photography can be classified as technology of making images and attracts the interest of scientists and artists from its inception. The scientists used their ability to make accurate recordings, as Eadweard Muybridge in his study of human and animal locomotion (1887). Artists also interested in this aspect, and also tried to explore other avenues besides the photomechanical representation of reality, as the pictorial movement. The military, police and security forces use photography for surveillance, identification and data storage. Aerial photographs were used to survey land use and planning in a given region.

Brief history of photography recognized The first picture is an image produced in 1826 by Frenchman Joseph Nicéphore Niépce, a pewter plate covered with a petroleum derivative called bitumen of Judea photosensitive. Was produced with a camera, and required about eight hours exposure to sunlight. In 1835 Daguerre developed a process using silver on a copper plate called the Daguerreotype. Although several researchers who develop throughout the nineteenth century Photography, as the historian Geoffrey Batchen in his book Burning with Desire, it is considered that the date of invention of Photography is the date of the submission process from Daguerre to the French National Assembly on January 7, 1839.

Almost simultaneously, William Fox Talbot developed a different process called calotype, using paper sheets coated with silver chloride. This process is very similar to the photographic process in use today, as it produces a negative that can be reused to produce several positive images. Hippolyte Bayard also developed a method of photography but delayed announcing for and was not recognized as its inventor. In Brazil, the French settled in Campinas-SP Hercule Florence achieved results superior to those of Daguerre, developed as negative, but despite attempts to spread his invention, which he called "photography" - was the rightful inventor of the word - not obtained recognition at the time. His life and work were not properly redeemed in 1980 by Boris Kossoy. The Daguerreotype became more popular as it responded to the demand for portraiture emerging middle class during the Industrial Revolution. This demand could not be met in volume and in cost by oil painting, must have given the impetus for the development of photography. None of the techniques involved (the darkroom and photosensitivity of silver salts) was discovered in the nineteenth century. The camera obscura was used by artists in the sixteenth century, as it helps to sketch paintings, and photosensitivity of a solution of silver nitrate was observed by Johann Schultze in 1724.

Recently, the modern photographic process underwent a series of refinements and improvements on the grounds of William Henry Fox Talbot. The photograph became for the mass market in 1901 with the introduction of the Kodak Brownie camera-and, in particular, with the industrialization of production and film development. Very little has changed in principle since then, apart from the color film become standard, auto focus and auto exposure. A digital recording of images is increasingly dominant as electronic sensors become more sensitive and able to provide definition in comparison with chemical methods. For the photographer lover of photography in black and white, little has changed since the introduction of the Leica 35mm film in 1925.

It's part of the culture of the figure Photographer Lick Lick, professional plazas was taking pictures commercially, when buying a camera was very difficult due to its high commercial value.

The Photography in everyday life and in

Photography can be used in the investigation of the daily lives of our students, so that the images obtained by the school, the family, the neighborhood, the city and the things that surround them, they are guided through a specific methodology for analysis and study of these "moments documented" and their correlation historical, social, geographical, ethnic and economic, education, the mere availability of the technological apparatus does not mean facilitating teaching-learning process. It is necessary that the teacher combines technology resources with their knowledge and teaching strategies in order to achieve one goal: knowledge of the real image provided through photography.

The photograph was born in black and white, or rather, black on white, in the early nineteenth century. Since the earliest forms of photography that became popular as the daguerreotype, about the decade of 1823, to the current black and white movies, there were many technical developments, and lower costs. The current movies today have a wide range of tone, even the colorful top, resulting in photos that are very rich in detail. So the photos made with PB films are superior color images converted into PB.

Halftone The black and white photographs are characterized by rich tonal passages, color photography, however, did not appropriately capture the subtle nuances of tonal changes. We can say, therefore, that the black and white photography is more appropriate for capturing halftones. In P & amp; amp; amp; B takes advantage of the light and shadow effects that make it more beautiful - so much so that some people only shoot black and white even with the advent of digital equipment. Thus, the debate that is precipitated calls into question the chemical processes black and white to digital technology front.

Color photography was explored during the nineteenth century and the early experiments in color could not fix the photograph and prevent the color from fading. During the half century that the emulsions available were not yet fully capable of being sensitized by the color green or the red (full red color sensitivity was only achieved with complete success in the early twentieth century).

The first permanent color photograph was taken in 1861 by the physicist James Clerk Maxwell. The first color film, Autochrome, only hit the market in 1907 and was based on points dyed potato extract. The first modern color film, Kodachrome was introduced in 1935 based on three colored emulsions. Most modern color films, except Kodachrome, are based on technology developed by Agfacolor in 1936. Instant color film was introduced by Polaroid in 1963.

Color photography may form images as a positive transparency, intended for use in slide projector (slides) or color negatives, intended for use in creating positive color enlargements on specially coated paper. The latter is currently the most common form of color photographic film (not digital), due to the introduction of automatic equipment for photo printing.

Digital PhotographyDigital photography is a photograph taken with a digital camera or cell phone models, resulting in a computer file that can be edited, printed, sent by e-mail or stored on a website or CD-ROMs.

Traditional photography was a considerable burden for photographers working at remote locations (as correspondents of press organs) without access to production facilities. With increasing competition from television, an increase of pressure to transfer images to the press quickly.

Photographers in remote locations carry a minilab photo with them, and some means of transmitting their images through the phone line. In 1990, Kodak unveiled the DCS 100, the first commercially available digital camera. Its cost has prevented the use in photojournalism and professional applications, but digital photography was born.

In 10 years, digital cameras have become consumer products, and are probably gradually replacing their traditional counterparts in many applications because the price of electronics falls and image quality improves.

Kodak announced in January 2004 that it would no longer produce reusable 35mm cameras after the end of that year. However, the photograph "net" will last, as the dedicated amateur and skilled artists preserve the use of traditional materials and techniques.

In digital photography, the light sensitizes a sensor, called CCD or CMOS, which in turn converts the light into electronic digital code, an array of digital numbers (frame with the color values ​​of all pixels in the image) which will be stored on a memory card. Typically, the content of this memory will be later transferred to a computer. Already you can also transfer the data directly to a printer, to generate an image on paper, without the use of a computer. Once moved from the memory card, it can be erased and reused.

Virtual albums

With the popularity of digital photography, there internet sites specialize in storing photographs. His images can be seen by anyone on the planet. They are organized by folders and can be separated by subjects to choose from.

The Virtual Albums can be used for various purposes, here are some of them:
Portfolio: Widely used by amateur photographers / professionals to showcase their work.
Storage: Who does not want to take up space on your hard drive can use the album to store your photos.
Business: Others use the albums to sell your photographic work.

The photojournalism meets a clearly defined function and has its own characteristics. The impact is fundamental. Information is essential. It is in press photography, an arm of documentary photography, which gives a great picture of the role of information, photojournalism. It's in photojournalism that photography can display all their ability to transmit information. And that information can be passed, with beauty, the simple framework that the photographer is able to do. Nothing happens today in printed communications without the endorsement of photography. There are basically four kinds of journalistic photography:

The social photographs: In this category are included photography politics, economics and business and general facts of the photographs of the events of the city, state and country, including the photograph of tragedy.

The photographs of sports: In this category, the amount of information is most important and what affects their publication.

The photographs cultural: This type of photography, its function is to draw attention to the news before it is read and it is only a picture. In this item we can put a large second group, the sport, as in photojournalism what else sells after police is sport.

The police photographs: many, almost all newspapers explore the sensasionalismo to show accidents with death, marginal in the act, to sell more newspapers and make an average with subscribers. It can be said that there is a rivalry between the newspapers to see which one that shows the most shocking scene in assault, death, accident great shape.

The photograph in the media, especially print (newspapers, magazines and brochures) is the most important, without a picture material is poor. A black and white photograph published in newspapers, has existed for over a hundred years and is one of the characteristics of photojournalism. Although color photography has gained ground in that category in the early '70s with the weekly magazines.

Peripheral Vision With the passage of time the reporters-photographic develop what we call peripheral vision, a greater degree of visão.Os degrees of vision increases reporter for being busy at distance and near, clear example of this is football, where both ends are used.

Independent Photojournalism
The idea of ​​independent photojournalism emerged in France after World War II. Formed agency photographers with the same goal: to have freedom agenda, discussing the work, delving into the stories and especially fight for copyright and ownership of original negatives. The Magnum Agency Cooperative, founded in 1947 in Paris by four photographers: Henri Cartier-Bresson, Robert Capa, David Seymour and George Rodger, was the pioneer. The movement to rebuild Europe and technological progress required the destruction of the war led to the creation of a new way to make and sell the photograph and discuss its function. Paris, for its geographical and ideological importance, facilitated this. The creation of this new way of procuring images would change the history of photojournalism in the world.
News agenciesOver time, the News Agencies proliferated up, and today many newspapers in small and medium sized agencies create, touting their photographers to sell their work in networks and newspapers internal circulation of the photographs. We can see on the pictures the agency or abbreviation.
With the history of the death of Princess Diana created a folklore about the Paparazzi, these photographers occasion can get to become famous because of your photos. Be ready with a camera in hand just to record an image that can yield a lot of money, and also reputation. The North American singer Britney Spears is usually the target of paparazzi who make millions with pictures of her in embarrassing occasions, certain parts of the U.S. have adopted policies against this type of professional.

Photograph publishedIn most media photographers photo published by independent gain, so if they send dozens of photos and only one is published only receive her. For many, especially those who are starting something great to see your photo credit.

Lens / LensesTo understand a little of lenses, a 24mm equivalent to a field of view of 75 degrees, and a 300mm lens is equivalent to a field of view of 12 degrees. With the fisheye lens 6mm, 8mm or 12mm, the photographer includes a field of view of over 190 degrees. A 500mm (those we see at football games, for example) can only shoot the goalie on the other side of the football field. Ie, lenses with values ​​less than 50mm is considered wide angle, and with values ​​above 150mm telephoto lenses are considered.

Photographer Photographer is the person who takes photograph using a camera. It is generally considered an artist, it makes your product (photo) with the same dedication and the same as any other visual artist.

When amateur and professional photos of a particular author bases much of its income in this activity, said to be a professional photographer.
Sometimes the adjective is used erroneously in professional photography to enhance a particular skill or photographic image of an author. In reality, the picture quality is not always related to the fact that its author is professional or not. Many amateurs perform regularly images more successful than many professionals.

Actually "professional" refers only to the profession of the author, and not the quality of work. While a professional can do a job poorly done, one can understand better later in the piece of "art". The adjective amateur, when assigned to a photographer, can have a very broad meaning. People who just photograph your family and life, for personal use, consider themselves amateur photographers. Other amateur photographers get to publish books, hold exhibitions and devote a lifetime to the study of photography.

Specializations Photographer
Since nowadays the photograph serves a wide range of issues and goals were created specializations. Photographer specializing best to master the technique of a particular type of photography or subject. The best known are the specializations photo reportage (social events), fashion, photojournalism, landscape, portrait and advertising (art object photography studio).

Formation of a Photographer
The training in photography at an art school can be realized through a photography course or integrated disciplines of photography courses in art, design, painting, multimedia, cinema, journalism and so on. Typically these courses are geared to the pursuit of photography as art.

A trade school, training in photography is more geared to the pursuit of commercial photography as a profession.

Photography and memory.
In the picture is the absence, the memory, the separation of those who love, people who have died, those who have disappeared. For some people, photography is a pleasurable act, or appearing to be imitating something that exists. For others, it is the need to prolong the contact, closeness, desire that the tie persists.
Strelczenia, 2001, apud Debray (1986, p. 60) notes that the image is born of death, such as denial of nowhere and to prolong life, so that between the represented and its representation there is a transfer of soul. The image is not simply a metaphor gone, but "a real metonymy, an extension sublimated, but his physical flesh."
The photo makes people remember their past and make them aware of who they are. The knowledge and the real essence of individual identity depends on memory. Memory links the past to the present, she helps represent what happened at the time, because before uniting with now have the ability to see the transformation and somehow decipher what is to come.

A photograph captures a moment, highlights a time, ie the time it stops running and not have changes. When looking at a photograph is important to value the jump between the time that the object was clicked and the present in which we contemplate the image, but the time taken is able to contain the before and after.

Relies, therefore, on the ability of the camera to store the instants that are considered valuable. Taking pictures helps fight nothing, oblivion. To remember is necessary to retain certain fragments of experience and forget the rest. Instants are more that perish than those who can save. According Strelczenia (2001), "Memory is recalling awards, making memorable if punishes with forgetting."

Shoots up to remember, because events expire and photos remain, but we do not know if those moments were significant in themselves or become memorable for being photographed.

The memory is constitutive of the human condition: man has always been busy producing signals that remain beyond the future, serving demarcates the existence and giving him direction. The photograph brings with most of what you see. It not only captures images in the world, but you can register the "revealing gesture, expression that summarizes all the life that accompanies the movement, but an image that destroys hard to cut the time, if we do not choose the fraction essential imperceptible" (Cortázar , 1986, p.30)

This whole field of interpretation that photography allows part of various factors, which act deeply ingredients (not always visible) on the meaning of the image. According Lucia Santaella and Winfried Nöth (2001), these elements are: the photographer, as agent, the photographer, machine and the world, ie the photographic act, the phenomenology of this act, the machine as a medium, the photograph itself; the relationship with the related photo, photographic distribution, ie, their reproduction; reception photo, the act of seeing it.
It's the photo shoot that the person seeking the thrill, something she has never felt. Photography is capable of hurting, of moving or animate a person. To each she offers a kind of affection. In the composition of meaning photo, according to Barthes (1984), there are three main factors: the photographer (operator), the object (spectrum) and the observer (spectator). The photographer sets his sights on the matter, he defiles and makes the photos according to their point of view. The object (or model) changes in front of a lens, simulating something that is not. For the observer, it generates a field of more significance, releasing its entire repertoire and changing again the image.

Barthes (1984, p. 45) also notes the presence of two elements in the picture, what the photographer wanted to convey is called studium, or is obvious, what is intentional. But when there is a detail that was not pre-produced by the author, is called the punctum. The latter generates another meaning to the observer, it hurts, crosses, messes with your interpretation.
By means of photographs is discovered the ability to obtain whole layers and emotions that are hidden in memory. You can also discover and acquire new meanings that those moments were not explicit.
Recognize the studium is inevitably find the intentions of the photographer, get in harmony with them, approve them, dicuti them in myself, because culture (that has to do with the studium) is a contract between creators and consumers . (...) In this second element that comes counteract the studium then call punctum. This time, I'm not going to search it, is it part of the scene, like an arrow, and come pierce me. (BARTHES, 1984, p. 48th).
Images are apparently silent. Always, however, provoke and lead to a plethora of speeches around them.
Photography as artMan has always tried to retain and fix movements in the world, starting with the cave drawings, through paint on canvas and sculpture, and finally getting the picture. This is a means of mass communication and is very popular today and born in the Industrial Revolution.

According to Barthes (1984, p. 21), many do not consider it art, because it is easily produced and reproduced, but its true soul is in interpreting reality, not just copy it. In it there is a series of symbols organized by artist and the receiver interprets and complete with more symbols of their repertoire.

Doing photography is not just squeezing the trigger. There must be sensitivity, registering a unique, singular. Photographer recreates the external world of reality through aesthetics. In a world dominated by visual communication, photography comes only to add, may be art or not, it all depends on the context, the time involved in image icons. It is up to the viewer to interpret the image, add it to your repertoire and feeling.

"Shooting is put in the same line of sight the head, the eye and the heart."
(Henri Cartier-Bresson)

Photography StudioOne of the advantages of a big studio, is to allow a greater distance between the subject and background. In conditions with little space, it is difficult to highlight the two separately, and there is a danger of the reason the shadows are formed on the bottom. Illuminating the background independently, it can be transformed hundreds of ways.

Give it a gradual enlightenment, illuminating the top and bottom in different ways. Alternatively, project shapes or colors on the bottom, putting on the lights masks (called gobos) colored or acetates. The paper rolls white or black backgrounds are the most used and the most versatile. The rollers may be suspended from the top wall of a studio, and then pulled up and down over the extended floor of the studio, creating a bend so that the junction of the wall with the ground is not visible in the photographs. As the role will be spoiling or dirtying it cuts off that part and pulls up more paper roll There is a wide variety of backgrounds for sale in specialty stores, but know that the simple backgrounds often work best, since not divert attention, and because a small studio is not always possible to blur the more elaborate forms that the fund may have.

Shutter SpeedThe time during which the shutter remains open determines the amount of light reaching the film. When selecting a shutter speed, make sure the camera is steady enough. The firmer is, the lower may be the shutter speed used. Even a tiny movement during exposure can cause the entire image is blurry. Using a tripod is the only way to ensure the success of a photograph that requires a long exposure time. With a telephoto camera instability is more remarkable than with a wide angle, so the larger the lens, the greater the shutter speed needed. In addition to "freeze" the action, the shutter speed lets you create effects that suggest movement, or special effects with the zoom.
Effect of panningIt is not always necessary to use a shutter speed as high. Often can track the movement while shooting, to compensate, using a technique called "panning".
Freeze movementThe shutter speed plays an important role in the processing of moving subjects in a static image. The less time the shutter remains open, unless the subject moves within the frame and will be sharper. So we use a higher speed when shooting a moving subject, such as a high-speed or to a horse running. There are other factors to consider. First, the actual speed of the subject does not necessarily indicate how quickly the image on the display will change.

If a reason to turn directly to the camera or away from her, the picture will change more slowly than if it passes perpendicular, and will require less shutter speed to "freeze" motion. A move diagonally in the frame will need a shutter speed between. The image size is also important: a train seen as a dot on the horizon does not appear to move as fast as a poppy swaying to the flavor of a gentle breeze in front of the lens. The longer the focal distance and closer to the ground, the higher the shutter speed.

Suggestions If professionals will enlarge your photo to the size of a poster, any subject movement will be much more noticeable than if using miniature format in a web page. Remember that there is movement in that many scenes that at first glance seem static: people passing a photo of architecture, birds flying in a landscape and trees that bend in the wind. You may need to increase the shutter speed to compensate.

A shutter speed to freeze motion completely can not give the best results. Often there is artistic merit in suggesting speed, letting the reason create a blur on film.
Congratulations to all members of United Photo Press to the World Photography Day.
Carlos Alves de Sousa
President of United Press Photo