World Photography Day: August 19th

Congratulations to all members of United Photo Press, to the World Photography Day ... In the world as completely imaging is our today, the picture is present at all times. 

Is common for cameras, digital, mobile phones, the picture has become a central element in this world globalization. But if today the picture has that place of prominence, and may be modified, processed and manipulated, much is due to the inventors of this concept. Two French deserve emphasis in this discovery: Joseph Nicéphore Niépce and Jean Jacques Mandé Daguerre. Niépce was the precursor, uniting elements of chemistry and physics, created the héliographie in 1926. In this invention it Aliou the principle of camera, employed by artists from the sixteenth century, the salts of silver. After the death of Niépce, Daguerre perfected the invention, renaming it as a daguerreotype. [Cartier-Bresson] 

By this time a Frenchman living in Brazil, Hercules Florence, also developed experiments that would lead to the same result. But the advent of photography was officially announced to the world, in Paris Academy of Sciences of France, with the daguerreotype, 19 August 1839. From there the picture developed here and was very much responsible for presenting the world to humanity. Even with the emergence of other forms of display of images (movies, television, computer) the picture remains the only "capable of capturing the human soul." Or, as Henri Cartier-Bresson would say, one of the greatest photographers of all time "photography is to capture the decisive moment." Photography is a technique for recording by mechanical and chemical or digital, of an image in a layer of material sensitive to light exposure, known as its support.

The word derives from the Greek words ÆÉÂ [fos] ( "light"), and ³ Á ± Æ ¹ Â [graph] ( "style", "paintbrush") or ³ Á ± Æ graph, meaning "drawing with light" or "representation by means lines "," design ".

Essence of photography The discussion on the use of photography is preceded by an attempt to understand their image, which began its development by various photographers throughout the nineteenth century (as Geoffrey Batchen states). 

His obvious artistic character is an obstacle to its use by the social sciences, while its scientific character to become a kind of subordinate in the field of art, characteristics that seem to reverse in the second half of the twentieth century, since the study is that environment deepened, the social sciences opened up for the impossibility of complete objectivity, and the field of art has to deal strongly with the idea, as opposed to an emphasis on the art form. 

The historical studies on the Picture start around one hundred years after its invention. But the theoretical studies on the photo appear in the post-war start, and the main theory used to characterize the photo comes from the field of semiotics, or semiology of Saussure's declines. In a strict reading of the work of Charles Sanders Peirce, defining the field of semiotics, the photograph is set from the three categories of signs that are an order of importance and dependence of each other: the icon, which is a qualitative representation of a object - for example, by analogy (in the case of photographic image), the index, which features a sign that refers to the significant causality or the contiguity (sometimes differentiated as index, as the reading of Umberto Eco), and symbol, whose relationship with the significant is arbitrary and defined by an agreement (the case of a flag of a country, for example). However, initial studies of Photography, as well as artists throughout the century XIX and XX were concerned with the problem of the icons of photography, ie the potential of their image and character of its realism. 

The first sign of this type of speech problem is the work of Walter Benjamin, whose text "A work of art in the age of its technical reproducibility", reveals a concern with the change of the reception of photography and film in relation to traditional means of art, pioneering and highly influential study that takes instances unique, like the problem of the aura (which, unlike the classic art) and the massive multiplication of the image. It is the work of Roland Barthes that we see a second time of trying to treat the photograph as a means. Barthes's work involves the construction of structuralism, and its reading of the work of Peirce. 

But the universe of Barthes is not the sign of the universe: the great book on Photography, "Camera Clara," has a phenomenological point of view (which refers to the Photo Naomi, concept of Husserl's phenomenology), and uses elements of Lacanian psychoanalysis. Throughout the work of Barthes, the picture is read a key feature of dialogical structuralism and the creation of concepts such as denotation and connotation, or blunt and obvious, until the development of par studium / punctum, which are not poles of which the photograph exists, but states of Photography: studium as the photo shows is as indifferent object of study, while the term punctum defines the establishment of a phenomenon in which subject and photo's affect. One of the legacies of the reading of Barthes on photography is the perception of the importance of the concept of "index", which is developed in later works of Rosalind Krauss (in "The Photo", and "The originality of Vanguard"), by Jean -Marie Schaeffer ( "The poor image"), and Philippe Dubois (The Photographic Act "). This relationship not only has been used in the field of art, as Krauss suggests, but is allowing the use of photography increasingly in the social sciences. 

Training devices and image The photograph is stabilized as industrial process in the twentieth century articulating a camera or darkroom, as trainer of the image device and a method of recording the image luminous - a photosensitive surface, which may be photographic film, photographic paper, or in the case of photography digital, a digital sensor CCD / CMOS that turns the light on a map of electric impulses, which are stored as information in a digital storage card. In this process it is clear the relationship between photography and its processes. For example, copy or photocopy machine, so images permanent USA but the transfer of static electrical charges in place of photographic film, it comes from the word eletrofotografia. In raiografia, published by Man Ray in 1922 are images produced by the shadows of objects on photographic paper without the use of camera. And you can place objects directly from the scanner (scanner) to produce pictures electronically. Photographers control the camera to expose the photosensitive material (or film) to light, which changes qualitatively and quantitatively according to the possibilities of each unit. The controls are generally inter-related, for example, the exposure varies according to the opening (which determines the amount of light) multiplied by the shutter speed (which determines a time of exposure), which varies the tone of the picture, the depth of photographic field and the degree of cutting time of the model photographed. Different focal distances of lenses can change the conformation of the depth of iagem and its angle. 

The controls of the camera may include: Focus Open the lens Exposure time (or speed of the shutter opening) Fixed focal length of objective: (tele-objective, normal or wide-angle), or variable (zoom) Sensitivity of the film Photometer Uses of photography The photo can be classified as technology for making images and attracts the interest of scientists and artists since its beginning. Scientists used their ability to make accurate recordings, such as Eadweard Muybridge in his study of human and animal locomotion (1887). 

Artists also are interested in this, and also tried to explore other ways besides the photomechanical representation of reality, as the pictorial movement. The military, police and security forces use photography for surveillance, identification and data storage. Aerial photographs were used for survey of land use and planning in a region. History of photography The first photo is a recognized image produced in 1826 by the Frenchman Joseph Nicéphore Niépce, a tin plate covered with a photosensitive derivative of petroleum called bitumen of Judea. Was produced with a camera, and required about eight hours of exposure tosunlight. In 1835 Daguerre developed a process using silver on a copper plate called the daguerreotype. 

Despite the various researchers who developed over the nineteenth century photography, as the historian Geoffrey Batchen in his book Burning with Desire, it is considered that the date of invention of the photograph is the date of submission of the French National Assembly Daguerre on 7 January 1839. The first permanent photographic image of the world by Nicéphore Niépce in 1825. Almost simultaneously, William Fox Talbot developed a different process called calotipo, using paper sheets covered with silver chloride. 

This process is very similar to the photographic process in use today, it also produces a negative that can be reused to produce more positive images. Hippolyte Bayard also developed a method of photography, but waited to announce and was no longer recognized as its inventor. In Brazil, the French living in Campinas-SP Hercule Florence has superior results to those of Daguerre, developed as negative, but despite attempts to spread his invention, which called "Photo" - was the rightful inventor of the word - not obtained recognition at the time. His life and work were not properly saved in 1980 by Boris Kossoy. The daguerreotype became more popular because it met the demands required by portraits of the middle class during the Industrial Revolution. This demand, which could not be supplied in volume and in cost by oil painting, must have given the impetus for the development of photography. None of the techniques involved (the darkroom and photosensitivity of the silver salts) was discovered in the nineteenth century.

The dark room was used by artists in the sixteenth century, as an aid to sketching paintings and the photosensitivity of a solution of silver nitrate was found by Johann Schultze in 1724. Recently, the modern photographic process suffered a series of refinements and improvements on the grounds of William Henry Fox Talbot. The picture has become for the mass market in 1901 with the introduction of camera-Kodak Brownie, and especially with the industrialization of production and revelation of the film. Very little has changed in principle since, in addition to the color film to become standard, the auto focus and automatic exposure. A digital recording of images is increasingly dominant, as electronic sensors are more sensitive and able to provide definition in comparison with chemical methods. For the photographer lover of photography in black and white, little has changed since the introduction of the Leica camera for 35mm film in 1925. 

Culture is part of the figure of the photographer Lick-lick, work that was taking pictures in the squares commercially, when buying a camera was very difficult due to its high commercial value. The photograph in the daily life and The photo can be used in the investigation of the daily life of our students, so that the images obtained by the school, the family, the neighborhood, the city and the surrounding things, they are guided through a specific methodology for analysis and study of these "moments documented and their correlation historical, social, geographical, ethnic and economic, education, the mere availability of technological apparatus does not facilitate the teaching-learning process. 

We need the teacher combines the technological resources with their knowledge and teaching strategies, to achieve an objective: the actual knowledge of the image provided by the photo The moon in R & B. The photo was in black and white, or rather, black on white, at the beginning of the nineteenth century. Since the first forms of photography that is popular, like the daguerreotype, roughly the decade of 1823, to present black and white films, there were many technical developments, and lower costs. The current movies today have a great range of tone, superior even to color, resulting in photos are very rich in detail. So the photos made with PB films are higher than the color pictures converted to PB. Undertone The black and white photographs to highlight the wealth of passages from hues, the color photograph, however, did not properly capture the nuances of subtle tonal changes. We can say thus that the photo black and white is most appropriate means for catching shades. In R & B takes it to the light and shadow effects that make much more beautiful - so much so that some people are just black and white Photograph even with the advent of digital equipment. Thus, it precipitated a debate that puts in check the chemical processes black and white front of the digital technology. Photo of a carpenter working in 1942, is a historical example of the first color photographs. 

The color photograph was exploited during the nineteenth century and the early experiments in color could not fix the photograph and prevent the color of weakness. During the half century that the emulsions available were not yet fully capable of being sensitized by the color green or red (total sensitivity to red was obtained with total success in the early twentieth century). The first permanent color photo was taken in 1861 by the physicist James Clerk Maxwell. The first color film, the Autocromo, only came to market in the year 1907 and was based on points of dyed potato extract. The first modern color film, the Kodachrome, was introduced in 1935 based on three colored emulsions. Most modern color films, except Kodachrome, are based on technology developed by Agfacolor in 1936. The instant color film was introduced by Polaroid in 1963. A color photograph may form images as a positive transparency, planned for use in slide projector (slides) or negative color, designed for use by extensions colored positive role in the special coating. The latter is currently the most common form of color photographic film (not digital), following the introduction of automatic equipment for photo printing. 

Digital photography Digital photography is a photograph taken with a digital camera or some cell phone models, resulting in a computer file that can be edited, printed, sent by e-mail or stored on CD-ROMs or websites. The traditional picture was a considerable burden for photographers working at remote locations (as of the press correspondents) without access to production facilities. With the increased competition with television, there was an increase of pressure to transfer images to the newspapers more quickly. The CCD sensor, which replaces the film in digital cameras. Photographers in remote locations minilaboratório upload a photo with them, and some means to transmit images by telephone. In 1990, Kodak introduced the DCS 100, the first commercially available digital camera. Cost prevented its use in photojournalism and professional applications, but digital photography was born. In 10 years, the digital cameras have become consumer products, and probably are gradually replacing their traditional equivalents in many applications because the price of electronic components falls and picture quality improvement. The Kodak announced in January 2004 that will not produce more reusable than 35 mm cameras after the end of this year. However, the picture "net" will last, as dedicated amateurs and skilled artists preserve the use of materials and traditional techniques. In digital photography, light sensitizes a sensor, called a CCD or CMOS, which in turn converts the light into a digital electronic code, a matrix of digital numbers (table with the value of the color of all pixels of the image) that will stored on a memory card. Typically, the contents of memory will be later transferred to a computer.

It is also possible to transfer data directly to a printer, create an image on paper, without using a computer. Once transferred from the memory card, it can be erased and reused. Virtual Albums With the popularization of digital photography, there were sites on the internet store specializing in photographs. Your images can be viewed by anyone on the planet. They are organized in folders and can be distinguished by their subject choice. Virtual albums can be used with several purposes, some of them below: Portfolio: Very used by amateur photographers / professionals to show their work. Storage: Who does not want to occupy space on your HD can use the album to store your photos. Business: General use the albums to sell your photographic work. Photojournalism An example of photo journalism: Migrant Mother of Dorothea Lange (1936). The photojournalism fulfills a function well established and has its own characteristics. The impact factor is crucial. The information is essential. It is the photo of the press, an arm of documentary photography, which gives a great picture of the role of information and photojournalism. 

It is in photojournalism that can display the picture all its ability to transmit information. And that information can be passed, with beauty, the simple framework that the photographer has the option to do. Nothing happens today in printed communications without the endorsement of the photograph. There are basically four types of photo journalism: The photos social: this category included the photo policy, economy and business and pictures of events of general facts of the city, the state and country, including a picture of tragedy. 

The photographs of sport: In this category, the amount of information is the most important and what affects their publication. The photos culture: This kind of photography, is designed to draw attention to the news before they read it and the picture is unique. In this item we can put a large second group, the sports, as in photojournalism after what the police are selling the sport. The police photographs: many, almost all the newspapers operate sensasionalismo to show accidents with death, in flagrant marginal, to sell more newspapers and make an average with subscribers. You could say that there is a rivalry between the newspaper and see what that shows the most shocking scene in assault, death, major accident at large. 

The photograph in the media, especially in print (newspapers, magazines and leaflets) is the most important, without an image the material is poor. The black and white photograph published in newspapers, there is more than one hundred years and is a feature of photojournalism. Although, the picture color space has won this category in the early 70s with magazines. 

Peripheral vision 

Over the time the photo-reporters have what we call the peripheral vision, a greater degree of visão.Os degrees of vision of the reporter increased by having to handle the distance and near, clear example of this is football, where both ends are used. Photojournalism independent The idea of independent photojournalism emerged in France after World War II. She graduated agency for photographers with the same goal: be free to staff, discuss he work carried out to delve into the reports and especially fight for copyright and ownership of the original negative. The Agency Co-operative Magnum, founded in Paris in 1947 by four photographers: Henri Cartier-Bresson, Robert Capa, David Seymour and George Rodger, was the pioneer. The movement for the reconstruction of Europe and the technological progress required the destruction of the war provided the creation of a new way to make and sell the photo and discuss their function. Paris, by its geographical and ideological importance, facilitated it. The creation of this new way to handle images would change the whole history of photojournalism in the world. Wire services Over time, the news agencies are proliferated, and today many newspapers to create small and midsize agencies, agency photographers to sell their work in networks of newspapers and the internal movement of the photographs. We can see the images on the agency or the abbreviation. Paparazzi With the history of the death of Princess Diana was created a folklore about the Paparazzi, these photographers can get the opportunity to become famous because of their photos. Be made with a camera in hand just to record an image that can yield much money, and reputation. 

The American singers pop stars are usually subject to bill millions of paparazzi photos of them with embarrassing at times, certain parts of the U.S. already adopted policies against this type of training. Photograph published In most media, the photographers get a picture published independent, then, is sending dozens of photographs and only one is published only receive it. For many, especially those who are starting is very good to see your photo credit. Lens / Lenses To understand a bit of lens, a 24mm equivalent of a field of view of 75 degrees, and an objective of a 300mm equivalent field of view of 12 degrees. With the fish eye lens of 6mm, 8mm or 12mm, the photographer includes a field of vision of more than 190 degrees. A 500mm (those we see at football matches, for example) to shoot only the goalkeeper of the other side of the football field. That is, the lenses with less than 50mm are considered wide angle, with values above 150 are considered telephoto. A photographer in activity Photographer is the person who takes photography, using a camera. It is generally considered an artist, it makes your product (the photo) with the same dedication and the same as any other visual artist. Amateur and professional When a copyright of photographs based much of their income in this activity, it is said to be a professional photographer. Sometimes, the adjective is used erroneously in professional photography to enhance a photographic image or expertise of an author. 

Indeed, the quality of the photograph is not always related to the fact of the author or not professional. Many amateurs perform regularly pictures that many more successful professionals. Indeed "professional" refers only to the profession of the author and not the quality of work. While a professional can perform a job poorly done, you can better understand, on the part of "art." The adjective amateur, when given to a photographer, can have a very wide meaning. People just photograph your family and life, for personal use, the amateur photographer. Other amateur photographers get to publish books, hold exhibitions and a whole life dedicated to the study of photography. Specializations of the photographer Since nowadays the picture is a wide range of issues and goals were established expertise. 

The photographer specializes is better to master the technique of a particular type of picture or subject. The most popular specialties are the photo story (social events), fashion, the photojournalism, landscape, portrait and advertising (art of photography of objects in the studio). Formation of a photographer Training in a school of art photography can be achieved through a course in photography or in integrated disciplines of photography courses in art, design, painting, multimedia, film, journalism and so on. Usually these courses are geared to the pursuit of photography as art. A vocational school, training in photography is more geared to the pursuit of photography as a profession trade. Photography and memory. 

In the photo is the absence, the memory, the separation of those who love, those who have died, those that disappeared. For some people, photography is a pleasurable act, or appear to be imitating something that exists. For others, the need to prolong the contact, proximity, the desire to continue that relationship. Strelczenia, 2001, apud Debray (1986, p. 60) notes that the image of death comes as a negation of anything and to prolong life, such that between the represented and its representation is a transfer of soul. The image is not a simple metaphor of the disappeared, but "a real metonymy, an extension sublimed, but also of his physical flesh." The picture is that people remember his past and make them aware of who they are. 

The knowledge of the real and the essence of individual identity depends on memory. The memory connects the past to the present, it helps to represent what happened in time, because before joining the now we have the ability to see the transformation and somehow decipher what will come. The photograph captures a moment, put in evidence a moment, or the time it does not stop running and have change. When looking at a photograph it is important to enhance the jump between the time the object was clicked on this and that includes the image, but when the picture is able to contain the before and after. Trust is therefore on the ability of the camera to save the moments that are considered valuable. Take pictures to help fight it, the oblivion. To remember is to retain some fragments of the experience and forget the rest. Are more moments that are lost that we can keep. According Strelczenia (2001), "The memory is recalling rewards, so memorable, it punishes with forgetfulness. 

Photographs to remember it, because the events are finished and the photos, but do not know if those moments were significant in themselves or become memorable for having been photographed. The memory is constitutive of the human condition: man has always been busy in producing signals that remain beyond the future, to serve as marks of his own existence and give it meaning. The photo brings more than what you see. She not only captures images of the world, but can register the revealing gesture, the expression that summarizes all the life that accompanies the movement, but a rigid image destroys the cut time, if not essential to choose the fraction imperceptible "(CORTAZAR , 1986, p.30) This whole field of interpretation that allows photography from several factors, which act deeply ingredients (not always visible) on the meaning of the image. According Winfried Nothe and Lucia Santaella (2001), these elements are: the photographer, as agent, the photographer, the machine and the world, ie takingpictures, the phenomenology of the act, the machine as a means, the picture itself; the ratio of the picture with respect, the picture distribution, ie, its reproduction, the reception of the picture, the act of seeing it. It is the photographic essay that the person seeking the thrill, something that it never makes sense. The picture is capable of injuring, or lead to impress a person. 

For each it provides a kind of affection. The composition of the meaning of the picture, according to Barthes (1984), there are three main factors: the photographer (operator), the object (spectrum) and observer (Spectator). The photographer casts his gaze on the subject, he contaminates and makes the pictures according to their point of view. The object (or model) is changing in front of a lens, simulating something that is not. For the observer, it generates a field of more significance, launching its entire repertoire and changing the image once more. Barthes (1984, p. 45) also notes the presence of two elements in the photo, what the photographer wanted to convey is called studium, ie the obvious, what is intentional. When there is a detail that was not pre-produced by the author, receives the name of punctum. The latter creates a different meaning to the observer, wounds, crosses, move with their interpretation. Recognize the studium is inevitably to find the intentions of the photographer, into harmony with them, adopt them, dicuti them in myself, because the culture (which has to do with the studium) is a contract made between the creators and consumers . (...) In this second element that is contrary to the call then studium punctum. This time, I'm not going to search him, that he is part of the scene, like an arrow, and has run through me. (Barthes, 1984, p. 48). By means of photographs discovered is the ability to obtain whole layers and emotions that are hidden in memory. You can also find and gain new meanings in those moments were not explicit. 

"The pictures are apparently silent. If, however, provoke and lead to a multitude of discourses around them. Photography as art He always tried to retain and set movements the world, starting with the cave drawings, through painting on canvas and sculpture, and, finally, getting the picture. This is a means of mass communication and is very popular in our day and born in the Industrial Revolution. According to Barthes (1984, p. 21), many do not consider art, to be easily produced and reproduced, but its soul is true to interpret the reality, not just copy it. It is a series of symbols organized by the artist and the receiver interprets and complete with more symbols of their repertoire. Add photo is not just squeezing the trigger. There must be sensitivity, recording a unique moment, unique. The photographer recreates the external world of reality through aesthetics. In a world dominated by visual communication, photography is only to add, can be art or not, everything depends on the context of time, the icons on the image involved. The observer interpret the image, add it to your repertoire and feeling. "Shooting is to place on the same line of sight your head, the eye and heart." (Henri Cartier-Bresson)

Photography in studio One of the advantages of a big studio, it allows greater distance between the ground and the bottom. Under conditions with little space, it is difficult to illuminate the two separately, and there is the danger of the shadows of the reason is forming on the bottom. Lighting the fund independently, it can be transformed hundreds of ways. Give it a gradual enlightenment, lighting the top and bottom of different ways. Alternatively, projecting forms and colors on the bottom, putting the lights on masks (called gobos) or colored acetates. 

Rolls of white paper or black are the funds most used and most versatile. The rolls may be suspended from the top of the wall of a studio, then pulled up and down on the floor extended the studio, creating a curve so that the junction of the wall with the floor is not visible in photographs. As the role will be spoiled or sujando, cut up the party and pull up more paper roll A variety of funds for sale through retail stores, but know that the money often simply better result, since not distract the attention, and because a small studio is not always possible to blur the most prepared that the fund may have. Shutter speed The time during which the shutter remains open determines the amount of light reaching the film. When selecting a shutter speed, make sure the camera is sufficiently strong. 

The more steady you are, the lower may be the shutter speed used. Even a tiny movement during exposure can to make the whole image is train. Using a tripod is the only way to ensure the success of a picture that requires a long time of exposure. With a teleconverter, the instability of the camera is more noticeable than with a wide-angle, so the bigger the lens, the greater the shutter speed needed. In addition to "freeze" the action, the shutter speed to create effects that suggest movement, or special effects with the zoom. Effect of panning It is not always necessary to use a shutter speed as high. Often it can track the movement while firing, to compensate, using a technique called "panning". Freeze the motion The shutter speed plays an important role in the processing of patterns in a moving image. The less time the shutter remains open, unless the reason for moving within the framework and will be more clear. So using a higher speed when shooting a subject moving as one to a high speed or a horse running. There are other factors to consider. First, the actual speed of the subject does not necessarily indicate the speed with which the image will change the display. If a reason to go directly to the camera or if it differs, the image will change more slowly than if it passes at right angles, and will require less shutter speed to "freeze" the motion. 

A diagonal movement in the environment need a shutter speed of between. The image size is also important: a train to be a point on the horizon does not appear to move as fast as a poppy to taste ranging from a gentle breeze in front of the lens. The higher the focal length and closest to the ground, the higher the shutter speed. Professional Tips If you intend to enlarge the photo to the size of a poster, any movement of the ground will be much more noticeable than if you use the thumbnail in a web page. Remember that there is movement in that many scenes that at first sight seem static: people move a picture of the architecture, the birds fly in a landscape and trees that the wind wand. It may be necessary to increase the shutter speed to compensate. A shutter speed to freeze a movement could not completely give the best results. Often there is an artistic merit to suggest speed, leaving the ground create a blur on film. 

Carlos Alves de Sousa 
President of United Photo Press