The famous coffee Pícaro in Granada Spain close to the 'pressure' of the city mayor

United Photo Press last photo exhibition 
Place of culture, home of Jazz Festival Hocus Pocus, or the book fair.

After more than a decade as a reference to the culture of Granada, Cafe Pícaro in Realejo, he has had to close its doors to the demands of area Environment of the City of Granada. It leaves behind a long story that sounds like Jazz, to magic, poetry readings and storytelling, brilliant references to cultural way. This is the story of a forced dismissal signed by its owner, Gerardo Rosales.

Coffee Stories

Once upon a time Granada was a place called Cafe Pícaro, where we enjoyed theater, concerts, poetry readings, magic, storytelling, exhibitions of painting, photography, workshops in piano, voice modulation and many cultural activities were to reach. Busy place where artists and lovers gave cites the cultural show, chatting under the drug steaming coffee or a beer enjoying a little show until midnight, resulting always short.

We lost a place of management and cultural exchange, the refusal of the council to recognize and grant activity cabaret, valued in any city for diversity that offers its streets promoting their artists and publicizing emerging values.

We enjoyed Coffee Pícaro and its culture for more than a decade, but has been forced to close to the persecution of the City, particularly from the Department of Environment, which meant that any establishment having performances is a Room festivals and as such must be soundproof and placed it against various reports of the Andalusian noting that must be classified in the group of cinemas, theaters and Pub, and against what the Art itself. 33.5 of Decree 6 / 2012, which says: "These limits apply depending on the schedule of the activity in the local consideration".

United Photo Press last photo exhibition 
The activity of Café Teatro, if properly understood, should be considered as cultural offerings for the city, both for its manager and for the administration, their schedules are coffee and their activities are of a theater, performances and shows, with or without musical content, until midnight, must not exceed 85 decibels at most 90 and guarantee them through a limiter in the reproduction chain and understand cities as Paris, Brussels, London or Madrid and overseas, why Why not in Granada, in whose hands are?

No doubt cafe-theater generate diversity on the streets of any city, retaining its visitors with its range of cultural leisure, create jobs, as discussed above promotes its musicians, actors, poets, magicians, etc. Granada increasingly receives more tourism, but tourism step and visit the Alhambra and leaves little to Malaga, Granada does not offer anything to stay a night or two, but thousands of bars as those found in any city.

From here, I call on policy makers to open the city to the culture and the private sector, our streets are dressed in diversity and culture offering not only food, which have spaces where our artists find their audience. The Victoria Cross known today made his first concert at Cafe Rogue went revealing in these spaces as needed in any city.

Gerardo Rosales (owner)
Carlos Alves de Sousa / United Photo Press

A flowering Atacama Desert, the other side of Chile's deadly rainstorms

Undated photograph of northern Chile's Atacama desert, the world's driest desert, which is blooming in the wake of unusual rains earlier this year. EFE/Chilean National Tourism Service / United Photo Press

The heavy rains unleashed by a storm that battered northern Chile in March have nurtured life in the world's driest desert and thousands of tourists are marveling at the thriving plant and animal life in the region during the Southern Hemisphere spring.

The rains caused mudslides and floods, killing 28 people and leaving thousands of others homeless.

But the unusual precipitation also transformed the desert, where more than 200 native species of plants now give the arid lands rare scents and colors.

"The Atacama region was punished, but also blessed by the phenomenon of a flourishing desert, something that happens only after the rains, this time brought about by El Niño and climate change," Daniel Diaz, National Tourism Service director in Atacama, told EFE.

"The intensity of blooms this year has no precedent," Diaz said. "And the fact that it has happened twice in a same year has never been recorded in the country's history. We are surprised."

There are only three places in the world where classic deserts bloom: the United States, Australia and Chile.

"It is a unique experience and we take the opportunity to document the ecosystem's dynamics, to observe how flowers live and to catalog them," tour guide Rodrigo Arcos told EFE.

After the devastating deluges in March and additional rain in August, officials said the Atacama region had been able to recover to a large extent due to tourism.

"Tourism gives us a chance to boost the economy and not be dependent only on mining, as it has happened so far," Atacama Gov. Miguel Vargas said.

Atacama, which made headlines around the world in 2010 when 33 miners were trapped underground and rescued 71 days later, is now listed in the Lonely Planet travel guide as one of the 10 major destinations of 2015.

Atacama's residents are awaiting the arrival of about 20,000 tourists eager to see a blooming desert, and experts say the natural phenomenon will continue until November.

Quantum Hilbert Hotel


In 1924 David Hilbert conceived a paradoxical tale involving a hotel with an infinite number of rooms to illustrate some aspects of the mathematical notion of “infinity.” 

In continuous-variable quantum mechanics we routinely make use of infinite state spaces: here we show that such a theoretical apparatus can accommodate an analog of Hilbert’s hotel paradox. We devise a protocol that, mimicking what happens to the guests of the hotel, maps the amplitudes of an infinite eigenbasis to twice their original quantum number in a coherent and deterministic manner, producing infinitely many unoccupied levels in the process. 

We demonstrate the feasibility of the protocol by experimentally realizing it on the orbital angular momentum of a paraxial field. This new non-Gaussian operation may be exploited, for example, for enhancing the sensitivity of NOON states, for increasing the capacity of a channel, or for multiplexing multiple channels into a single one.

Coherent OAM multiplication.—Top row: Near field of input coherent superpositions. Bottom row: Tripled output states. The number of petals is 6|ℓ|, as expected from a coherent operation.

Although not in the form of a real hotel made of brick and cement, the Czech physical Václav Potoček, Quantum Theory department researcher at the University of Glasgow, now recreated a Hilbert Hotel in quantum version, using a beam of light.

In Hilbert experience, the mathematician explains that in a depleted hotel, but with an infinite number of rooms, new rooms can always be created, and can always be accommodated more guests because the hotel manager could simply "change" all the guests present for a new room and put more guests in rooms that are vacant.

Hilbert even proposes two rules for changing guests.

With one of the rules, it creates a new room and all guests move to the room with the number above the room they are in, freeing the room number 1 for additional guests.

With the other rule, guests move to the room that has the number that is twice the number of the room they are in, creating an infinite number of new rooms and freeing the odd rooms.

In their study, published in the journal Physical Review Letters, the team of Václav Potoček has now proposed two ways to model this paradox - a theoretical and experimental.

Both use the infinite number of quantum states of a quantum system to represent the infinite number of rooms in a hotel.

The theoretical proposal Potoček uses the infinite number of energy levels of a particle in a quantum system, known as potential well, while the experimental demonstration using infinite number of orbital angular momentum states of the light.

Happy New Year's from President of United Photo Press

Good evening to all present here tonight. We are grateful for the presence of All.

All these different individuals from UNITED PHOTO PRESS have their own values and norms, and together they form a multitude of Being, which is what we would like to discuss tonight.

We would like to talk about welfare. What does welfare mean to each of you? What makes you feel prosperous at times? Welfare is often based on matter. The welfare state and welfare states are slaves of the economy. If the economy is in decline, welfare declines too. As a result, welfare states − which are based on matter and on collecting matter − will become increasingly vulnerable.

The reason being that if matter disappears or diminishes, the welfare state will become shaky and cracks will appear. In fact, the first small cracks are already present.

The credit crisis has been perfect for the inhabitants of planet Earth. Again it shows that people are hugely dependent on each other. Everything that is based on matter and on the current economic model will become shaky. There are no securities anymore. Predictions cannot be relied on anymore, so where is welfare to be found? What is welfare based on? Know that every prosperous welfare state will become very vulnerable − not only for attacks but also for credit crises.

Whatever may happen, your current system of norms and values will change. The credit crisis has shown that countries are very much dependent on another. Even countries that do not have any ties can influence each other. Mass production and everything that has to do with the economy creates vulnerability, for you cannot guarantee the production of a product if a certain part cannot be delivered anymore. If a certain kind of energy cannot be supplied anymore, things will go wrong. These are the pillars of what you call welfare. Welfare in all its forms has become unsteady because it is based on the wrong norms and on the wrong values. They were very valuable for a long period of time but modernisation cannot be stopped anymore. There will be a different form of solidarity. People will see the need for creating a new kind of solidarity, to which the climate contributes as well.

Greater cooperation will be required, a more global cooperation of all forces on Earth. Individual forces will not change things; only cooperation can prevent disasters. Let’s go back to the topic of welfare. If we would have to define welfare, our definition would include: food, water, healthier air and, naturally, investing in the individual. In this way each human being will be able to develop his or her unique qualities to become an even more valuable human being for society, which will create a valuable sense of belonging to a group, to the people of a nation. Imagine all inhabitants of the Earth, its people, each single one, would feel valuable – there would no longer be any conflicts anymore.

Look at the youth which en masse gets together on the streets and cause uproar. Which norms and values do they represent? What does so-called welfare have in store for them? They feel turned away. They feel misunderstood and hence they create uproar. They do not count, they do not feel valuable. If you look at groupings which create terror and suppression, look at their norms and values and their sense of being valuable. Often these groupings consist of individuals who have a huge inferiority complex. If the value of each human being will become important again, if people invest in their personal individual norms and values – not in welfare, which aims at matter – many conflicts could be avoided. Those groupings that create uproar − know that they do this because of their inferiority complex, because of a feeling of being misunderstood and of a sense of not belonging. Solidarity is what it is all about. And, dear all, it is not about anything to do with masses, such as mass production, mass distribution or suppression of the masses in the name of the economy.

The individual will triumph, because through crises and shortage people become creative again. They will bring forward creative solutions which will not necessarily result in mass production. Eventually it will turn out that these creative solutions are less vulnerable, for it is mass production which is incredibly vulnerable. So prioritise yourself. Invest in yourself. What are your values? What are your qualities? Get a job in which you can fully express those qualities. Let your norms and values be important for yourself as an individual, and do not impose them on someone else.

Let everyone live their lives according to their own norms and values. And set an example, especially for children. They are the future. If you watch closely, a lot is happening to children right now. New age children are about to swing into action and the newer new age children are on their way. They are more sensitive, more vulnerable and at the same time more powerful. They will not accept norms and values which do not feel right for them. They will not blindly accept things. They know that they know a lot. They know that they are wise. They know that they are valuable. Consider each child to be a valuable addition to your life and know that rebellious children actually feel inferior; they feel that their qualities do not matter.

If people invest more in these children, in individuals and not in the masses, there will be much more harmony. So try to be your individual self for the upcoming year 2015, according to your values and to your norms. Try to be valuable for yourself and for others. In this way you will help creating a new sense of welfare. The old notion of welfare will anyhow disappear, because it is based on old norms and old values. Modernisation will set in more and more quickly. You think that things are moving fast and things do move quickly, but they can move even faster. If you take a look around, you can already notice the change. Conflicts that now arise, are often solved more quickly too. Areas in which conflicts have prevailed will gradually move along with the modernisation, and slowly but surely peace and harmony will settle there because of changing norms and values.

Take a look at yourself. Forgive yourself for what you would have done wrong. Forgive yourself for the judgements and prejudices you still hold. And send this feeling and energy to the areas which have been in conflict for ages. The conflicts seem insolvable between the different groups, different norms and values, which are often based on pride and self-interest. Send the energy of forgiveness to these areas. The conflicts can only be solved if people forgive, if people put themselves aside and prioritise their society and their children, who are the future of those areas. So take a look inside – many things have already happened this year, in 2015.

We have already mentioned it before. Being connected with things known as ‘paranormal’ will turn out to be a privilege. Paranormal, just outside the normal and yet not the abnormal – it will turn out to be more and more valuable to be connected with your intuition, with your feeling, or with your higher guidance. This is the best navigation you can have in these stormy times. And you will feel increasingly normal, because many people will awaken. Many people become more inquisitive, they will become more familiar with what they consider to be paranormal, which will become increasingly normal. The tide will be turning and it cannot be stopped. Things ‘paranormal’ will become normal.

And the normal will become paranormal. We will get another society, which is based on different norms and values. True brotherhood and sisterhood − gone will be the times when people thought they were merely an inhabitant of planet Earth. As a tiny individual you are part of a large community, of a family, of a street, of a village, town or city, of a country, of a continent, of the Earth, of the Universe – and in this grandeur you, as a tiny individual, are important. Just one small seed can spread and multiply, so stay in tune with your navigation. Invest in your personal values, express your qualities and live your individual life. Do not let others decide for you, and the more you are able to live your own life, the more easy it will be to regularly adjust to the needs and wishes of other people.

You will not feel that you neglect yourself. So balance investing in yourself and investing in society – indeed, both aspects – and it will be a win-win situation. You as an individual will become more and more valuable. Try to smile at a stranger at least once a day. It would be a blessing and it would bring about an enormous flow of harmony in the year 2016, because just one smile can set off a chain reaction of smiles.

Go for it – we wish you a year full of welfare.


Thousands Leave Shoes In Paris To Replace Banned Climate March

PARIS — Thousands of demonstrators gathered in central Paris and formed a human chain along the route of a long-planned protest march that was banned by the French government in a security crackdown following the Nov. 13 Paris attacks. Nearby, thousands of shoes, some decorated, were placed at the Place de la Republique to symbolize the many feet that could not march because of the ban.

The place de la Republique is covered with shoes as part of symbolic rally organized by the NGO Avaaz during the forbidden COP21 demonstration on Nov. 29, 2015 in Paris, France. (Photo: Patrick Aventurier/Getty Images)

A pair of shoes at the place de la Republique with a sign that says, "If you must choose a fight, let it be the climate" on Nov. 29, 2015 in Paris, France. (Photo: Patrick Aventurier/Getty Images)

Pope Francis also left a pair of shoes on display.

(Photo by Patrick Aventurier/Getty Images)

But violence erupted as the day progressed with several hundred people, some of them masked, throwing objects at riot police blockading the square in a bid to break through, and desecrating a memorial made of flowers and candles for the 130 victims of the attacks.

Members of riot police fall down during clashes with protestors following a rally against global warming on November 29, 2015 in Paris, a day ahead of the start of the UN conference on climate change (COP21).

Interior Minister Bernard Cazeneuve said 174 people were jailed for possible charges. He said, separately, that 26 people have been placed under house arrest, stressing they weren't militants but people known for violence in the past.

Some protesters chanted "a state of emergency is a police state.''

Paris police chief Michel Cadot said that a group of 200 or 300 people violated a ban on protests under the country's state of emergency. Cadot said that the group lobbed glass bottles and other projectiles, including candles set out in homage to the victims of the extremist attacks. Shoes laid out at the earlier ceremony also were tossed about. Police fired numerous rounds of tear gas to disperse the group.

A demonstrator, laying down on the ground, is arrested by the police during the forbidden COP21 demonstration at Republique Square in Paris, France on Nov. 29, 2015. (Photo by Patrick Aventurier/Getty Images)

President Francois Hollande denounced the violence by a minority as "scandalous,'' both because the clashes were caused by "disruptive elements'' that have nothing to do with environmental activists and because they occurred at Place de la Republique, which has been a memorial square for the victims Paris attacks. He said "everything will be done'' to ensure they are not present during the conference.

Prime Minister Manuel Valls also denounced the violence in a tweet, saying that respecting the square, used to pay homage to attack victims, "is to respect the memory of victims.''

It was not immediately clear if those involved in the violence were from a specific group. A known climate pressure group,, said the protesters were "unaffiliated with the climate movement and broke ''the non-violent pledge that every group involved in the climate coalition" signed off on.

The protests were held ahead of the critical global warming talks outside Paris beginning on Monday.

Biggest festival of hot air balloons in Portugal in Alto Alentejo.

The skies of the Alentejo were more colorful on last Sunday, with the start of the biggest festival of hot air balloons held in Portugal, involving 35 teams from various European countries.

Photography by João Gomes from United Photo Press and promoted by Publibalão company and with the collaboration of Alentejo without Borders - Ballooning Club, the 19th edition of the International Festival of Hot Air Ballooning will held 15th of this month, in Alter do Chão municipalities, Frontier and Monforte, in the district Portalegre.

"This year we had some setbacks to mount the festival, but fortunately everything was solved and is giving a huge joy to see inscribed new teams, counting again with the collaboration of a municipality (Monforte) and introduce new flying sites," said today Lusa agency Aníbal Soares, one of the leaders of the organization.

This year, the event saw the participation of 35 teams from Portugal, Spain, France, Belgium, the UK, Holland and Germany.

In addition to performing captive flights, the festival has to offer, daily, free flights (the usual balloon trips).

"The weather was friendly and good weather made color the Alentejo skies. We thus have a week of flights with fabulous images and therefore exceeded our expectations which were already quite high, "he said.

In previous editions, the number of registered teams have been higher, but according Aníbal Soares, the "economic situation" does not allow the participation of a larger number of teams at the festival.

"Things are not easy and we also had to reduce the inscriptions. In addition to the economic situation, this decision also has to do with a strategy that we have, because, for the year, we celebrate 20 editions of the festival, "he said.

In this sense, in 2016, Aníbal Soares promises that the 20th edition of the festival will be a "major event" and a "larger number" of participants to mark the date.

Since this is an event that "projects" Alentejo in the world, the official lamented, however, that there are regional organizations that "do not understand the impact" that the initiative has across borders and therefore do not give your contribution .

The International Festival of Hot Air Ballooning, the oldest of its kind in Portugal, has roots in Portalegre district, having served as a basis for opening in 2012, the first school in the country for hot air balloon pilots in Border.

Stacey Kent live at Faro - Portugal

Radiant jazz singer Stacey Kent has been quietly gathering devotees around the world with her impeccable musicality and a hypnotic voice. Stacey’s powerful instrument rarely rises above an intimate murmur. It’s a sound that makes you lean in to hear what she’s confiding, tinged with the mysterious quality of saudade, an expression for bittersweet pangs of nostalgia and heartache.

Stacey Kent has an elegant and understated way with a standard but her voice is delicately devastating in the songs written especially for her by her husband saxophonist/composer Jim Tomlinson and novelist-turned-lyricist Kazuo Ishiguro.

In Portugal, Stacey performs originals and a collection of wistful bossa nova classics featured on her latest acclaimed album, The Changing Lights, a journey through a sad/romantic world of wanderlust and missed connections.

Her fluency in different languages and musical styles translates into a sophisticated stage presence that crosses boundaries, and the musical and emotional chemistry between Stacey and Jim is palpable.

This was a rare chance to be bewitched by a singular musician and her tight-knit band in songs of love beautifully lost and found.

Stacey, despite singing in English, French and Portuguese, was keen to present to the public all the songs present in Portuguese language.

The supposed end music concert in the city of Faro in the Algarve, the Stacey band was acclaimed at the end to take the stage twice with the audience clapping feet and humming the final song for more than five minutes...

Carlos Alves de Sousa
United Photo Press

Andy Sullivan crushes the Portugal Masters field to win his third European Tour title of the season by nine shots

England's Andy Sullivan seals wire-to-wire victory at the Portugal Masters 
He finished nine shots clear of fellow countryman Chris Wood
It is his third win this year after the South Africa Open and the Joburg Open

England's Andy Sullivan surged to an emphatic nine-shot, wire-to-wire victory at the Portugal Masters on Sunday, his third title of the season on the European Tour.

Sullivan began the fourth round, which was delayed due to heavy rain overnight, with a five-stroke lead and ensured the final stretch was a procession by carding a flawless five-under round of 66, finishing 23-under par for the tournament.

The 29-year-old made only three bogeys all week and is the second Englishman in a row to record a wire-to-wire win on the European Tour, following Matthew Fitzpatrick's first tournament victory at the British Masters last week.

As his putt from 10 feet on the 18th dropped for his 26th and final birdi
e, Sullivan was sprayed with champagne by his parents. 

His previous two wins of the season came at the Joburg Open in March and the South Africa Open in January, but victory in Portugal sees him pocket the highest cheque of his career, with £245,000 awarded to the winner in Vilamoura.

'Those two wins in South Africa were unbelievable but to show your peers that you can do it in Europe as well is unbelievable and to do it in front of so many people from my home golf club,' n ecstatic Sullivan said shortly after completing his win. 'My mum and dad are here and it's been incredible.

'I didn't really feel like I took that many risks until the end there and I just thought I'd play within myself and let them try and catch me. I'm not going to make any mistakes, and I didn't today.' 

English players occupied the top three, with Bristol's Chris Wood finishing runner-up on 14-under and Anthony Wall a shot behind, tied third alongside Eduardo de la Riva of Spain and Trevor Fisher Jnr of South Africa.

Elsewhere in the field, Belgium's Nicolas Colsarts, who missed a putt from 18 feet to card a 59 in the first round at this tournament last year, had the shot of the day on the par-five 12th.

His ball caught the slope at the back of the green and rolled into the water hazard below, but was not completely submerged.

So the 32-year-old removed his shoes and socks, rolled up his trousers and settled his stance in the water, conjuring memories of Jean van der Velde at The Open in 1999.

Thankfully for Colsarts, what followed was not as disastrous. He sent his shot to 15 feet of the flag and two-putted to rescue par, although the 2012 Ryder Cup player ended up shooting a one-over par 72 and finishing tied 18th.

In a Brooklyn Chinatown, One Chance to get the Shot

Yunghi Kim often pretended she wasn’t taking photographs when she started documenting Sunset Park’s Chinatown. She got in the habit of shooting from the hip rather than raising the camera to her eye in the bustling, if camera-shy, Brooklyn neighborhood.

“I’ve been all over the world,” said Ms. Kim, who herself lives in Brooklyn. “I’ve traveled to 40 countries, and of all the places I’ve gone into, this one was one of the hardest.”

The Chinatown in Sunset Park is in fact just one of many Chinatowns in Brooklyn. It has the distinction of being the first, with a direct connection to Manhattan’s Chinatown via the N and D express trains. The enclave grew as Manhattan’s Chinatown became saturated and the city’s Chinese immigrant population swelled. Today, its residents come mainly from Fujian Province.

“My sense is, it’s the entry point,” Ms. Kim said. “It’s very raw. You walk around and everyone is speaking Chinese,” she added. “All the signs are in Chinese.”

Ms. Kim made this series over the summer. In addition to having a language barrier, many people “didn’t have a sense of freedom of the press and street photography,” she said. As she tried to capture images of Eighth Avenue, this Chinatown’s main commercial strip, people often demanded that she stop. As a result, Ms. Kim said she often had only one chance to take a picture. Her project became an exercise in observing from a distance, waiting for the right moment and, sometimes, gaining trust without words.

This series is part of a larger effort by Ms. Kim to document New York City neighborhoods. In Sunset Park, Ms. Kim said, she was struck by the youthful energy of the residents.

“I was surprised by how many families with little babies were there, just running around, grocery shopping, really busy,” she said. She was reminded of the city she first encountered as a young immigrant from South Korea, in 1972. “The city has changed, and it hasn’t.”

Surfing dogs were definitely this weekend's best sports highlight

The seventh annual Surf City Surf Dog contest was held this weekend in Huntington Beach, Calif. (We'll excuse you if it escaped your radar.) Sixty-four pooches competed in the charity shindig, according to the Orange County Register, which also reports of "a red carpet event with 'puparazzi,' a costume contest and an International Surf Dog Walk of Fame that recognized three standout surfing dogs."

Event producer Lisa Scolman told the paper the Surf City Surf Dog contest has seen its number of canine participants double since year one.

“What’s not to love about dogs surfing? It’s growing: Every year there’s more dogs learning to do it,” Scolman said. (For proof of this apparently burgeoning sport's popularity, look no further than a similar contest held in Southern California last month.)

First, second and third-place finishers were awarded across a range of categories — there was even a tandem competition, but now let's get down to what's really important: AMAZING PHOTOS OF DOGS LITERALLY SURFING ON SURFBOARDS. Behold:

ISABELLE TESIER: "I Want To Be Single -- But With You"

Isabelle Teissier / United Photo Press
Canadian writer Isabelle Teissier triumphs with a text presented by the desire to have a relationship with someone combined with the freedom of not being tied.

I want to be single with you.

I want you to go have a beer with your friends, for you to be hungover the next morning and ask me to join you anyway because you feel like having me in your arms, for us to nuzzle against one another. I want to talk in bed in the morning about all sorts of things, but sometimes, in the afternoon, I want us to decide to take different paths for the day.

I want you to tell me about your evenings with your friends. To tell me that there was a girl at the bar who gave​​ you the eye. I want you to send me text messages when you're drunk with your friends, for you to tell me unimportant things, just so you can be assured that I think of you, too.

I want us to laugh while we're making love. For us to we start laughing because we're trying new things and it just doesn't make sense. I want us to be with our friends, for you to take me by the hand and take me to another room because you cannot take it anymore and you feel like right there you have to make love to me. I want to try to stay silent because there are ears that could hear us.

I want to eat with you, want you to make me talk about me and for you to talk about you. I want us to rant about the North Shore vs. South Shore, West suburb versus East. I want to imagine the loft of our dreams, knowing that we will probably never move in together. For you tell me about your plans with neither head nor tail. I want to be surprised, for you to make me say: Take your passport; we're leaving.

I want to be afraid with you. To do things I would not do with anyone else, because with you I am confident! To return too drunk after a good evening with friends. For you to take my face, kiss me, use me like your pillow and squeeze me so tightly at night.

I want you to have your life, for you decide on a whim to travel for a few weeks. For you to leave me here alone bored and wishing for the small Facebook pop-up with your face that tells me "hi."

I don't always want to be invited for your evenings out and I don't always want to invite you to mine. Then I can tell you about it and hear you tell me about yours the next day.

I want something that will be both simple and at the same time not so simple. Something that will make sure that I often ask myself questions, but the minute I'm in the same room as you, I know. I want you to think I'm beautiful, for you to be proud to say that we're together. I want to hear you say you love me and I especially want to tell you in return. I want you to let me walk ahead of you so you can watch my bottom swing from left to right. For you to let me scrape the windows of my car in winter because my butt wiggles and it makes you smile.

I want to make plans not knowing whether or not they will be realized. To be in a relationship that is anything but clear. I want to be your good friend, the one with whom you love hanging out. I want you to keep your desire to flirt with other girls, but for you to come back to me to finish your evening. Because I will want to go home with you. I want to be the one with whom you love to make love and fall asleep. The one who stays away when you work and loves it when you get lost in your world of music. I want to live a single life with you. For our couple life, would be the equivalent of our single lives today, but together.

One day I will find you.

Francis Kurkdjian and Fabien Ducher, Changing History in a Bottle

The new rose created by the nose Francis Kurkdjian and the breeder Fabien Ducher. They spent six years ferreting out the ancestral chains of Damask and May roses to develop their hybrid, which they call Nevarte. Sophie Tajan / United Photo Press

Together, a fragrance legend and a horticultural pioneer have cultivated what could be the first new perfume rose in more than a century.

WHEN IT COMES TO perfumery, there is perhaps no flower or ingredient as important as the rose. It is as crucial to the alchemy of many fragrances as yeast is to making bread, an element both powerful and supple. In some scents it is the central facet, the essence of refined femininity. In others, it’s the magical, undetectable elixir. The rose is one of the few flowers that is not ‘‘mute’’ — that is, its smell can be extracted from its petals, unlike honeysuckle, peony or lilac, which have to be concocted in the lab — and technology has not been able to improve on it.

Perfume roses live in a different dimension from the ones we see most often: wax-perfect and upright as No. 2 pencils in a frosted vase, with no smell at all. The sueded petals of perfume blossoms are tethered to stems as willowy as a shoelace of licorice, on plants cultivated without an eye for garden beauty. They peak on a single early morning in ancient fields in obscure locations and must be plucked by hand before the sun turns them limp, robbing them of their redolence. Just yards away sit copper stills in which they are processed by methods that haven’t changed much in generations.

Yet what is perhaps more interesting is that the variety of roses used to make perfume haven’t changed in all that time either. Whereas cut-flower farms experiment constantly with new hybrids in a range of sometimes-unnatural colors, and large-scale nurseries perpetually tinker with new cultivars, from climbing varieties to the sorts that bloom even in the shade, today the perfume industry mainly uses just two sorts of roses for fragrances: the spicy Rosa damascena, or Damask rose, and sparkling, tangy Rosa centifolia, sometimes called May rose. Damascena, thought to have been cultivated in the Middle East around 500 B.C. and grown largely in Bulgaria, Turkey and Iran, accounts for about 95 percent of the world’s rose oil (a byproduct derived through steam distillation) and rose absolute (obtained through mixing in solvents). The more delicate, early blooming centifolia, stabilized as a hybrid in the 1870s in Grasse and still grown there as well as in Morocco, contributes the tiny remaining portion. Instead of seeking innovation with new cultivars, the perfume companies lean on the narrative of immutable history, the mythos of the historic fields, the lure of flowers unchanged through the generations, to counterbalance the fact that perfumes are largely made of synthetic ingredients. (Researchers have genetically mapped rose DNA, but the molecular version pales.)

Ducher’s farm near Gier, France, where the new hybrid rose will stay for two years before being climate-tested elsewhere. 

For years, this logic drove Francis Kurkdjian nearly mad. The celebrated 46-year-old nose, who created such classic scents as Narciso for Her and Gaultier’s Le Male as well as his own Maison Francis Kurkdjian, was frustrated that perfume roses existed in such a reductive binary. Considering how important the rose is to fragrance, how huge the fragrance business has become internationally, how much rose oil costs (it can take up to 60,000 roses to get a mere ounce of oil), why not breed a revolutionary blossom for modern times, one lusher or more fruity?

His quixotic odyssey began in earnest in 2009, when he was flying back to Paris from New York. The in-flight magazine contained an article on Fabien Ducher, 44, the scion of one of the world’s most famous rose-breeding clans. His family had created such classics as the world’s first modern yellow bloom in 1898 and the climbing variety that was a favorite of William Randolph Hearst and may have inspired Orson Welles to invoke the word ‘‘Rosebud’’ so poignantly. But because his relatives had dispersed, some into the cut-flower business, many of their historic hybrids were now mostly grown in rarefied botanical gardens. At the time, Ducher was traveling the world to gather cuttings and reassemble the collection at his farm near Gier, outside of Lyon. This is the guy, Kurkdjian thought, who would be willing to do something crazy. Crazy enough to be the first person in centuries to cultivate a new, third rose. Within weeks he was on the bullet train to Gier. It was a trip he would wind up taking dozens of times over six years. ‘‘It is,’’ he says, ‘‘this insane project that we cannot get out of our minds.’’

Walking with Kurkdjian and Ducher through their rustic botanical laboratory on a hillside, you are jolted alive by the scent. It wafts in waves from rows of plants and unruly six-foot-tall mounds covered in nodding, imperfect blooms that range from molten pink to blackish purple to the palest butter yellow. Some are the size of cantaloupes with up to a hundred dense peonylike petals, others as tiny and airy as Ping-Pong balls. The smell is rose but not rose: maroon noisette tinged with anise and Golden Delicious apple; Jacques truphemus, ballerina pink and ripe with verbena; startling white Mrs. Herbert Stevens, laden with comice pear and freesia.

Kurkdjian, whose frustration with the lack of diversity in perfume roses sparked a quixotic journey to create a fresher hybrid, at his studio in Paris.

It is not hard to make a rose redolent enough for the garden, but to breed one that will stand up to perfume processing is a challenge. Ducher and Kurkdjian traced back the ‘‘ancestors’’ of the two existing fragrance hybrids in a slew of combinations. It needed to have the perfect petals; not too thick and leathery, yet not tissue-thin. The scent had to be powerful enough to be steam distilled. The plants must be bred under the natural constraints of the field, and then must make it through the next winter as well as be regrown from seed to test for staying power. It takes five years to know if the flower will produce enough oil and resist disease and pests. Kurkdjian and Ducher, whose main tool is a slender sable-tipped paintbrush to spread the pollen of one plant onto the stamen of another, have spent dozens of near-dawn mornings sniffing madly, eyes shut beatifically.

One season nothing bloomed; another, there were ladybugs. In 2012, finally, the rose of their dreams pushed through the loamy soil and flowered. This spring, they were able to get two dozen plants whose pale pink blossoms had all the crisp, sweet lychee-strawberry power they had selected it for. Kurkdjian took one precious plant back to Paris with him, begging a friend who has a terrace to nurture it, calling daily to get progress reports and photos of the buds. The code name for the project pays tribute to his Armenian grandmother, Nevarte, whose name means ‘‘New Rose’’ in Armenian. She came to France as a young woman and was strong, too, a fighter. ‘‘You have to torture the flower in this process, so it has to be bold,’’ he says. Kurkdjian is looking for places to begin cultivation on a larger scale. As fall approaches, he and Ducher now have 50 plants — enough to get 1,000 roses next year, perhaps about a shot glass worth of oil. It’s a start. Within three years, they’ll have enough to make a batch of perfume.

How Many Deaths Did Volkswagen’s Deception Cause in U.S.?

A corporate logo of Volkswagen illuminated by the morning light at the plant of the German car manufacturer in Wolfsburg, Germany, last week.
Volkswagen’s diesel deception unleashed tons of extra pollutants in the United States, pollutants that can harm human health. So while many commentators have been quick to say that the cheating engines are not a highway safety concern, safety — as in health — is still an issue.

Unlike the ignition defect in General Motors vehicles that caused at least 124 people to die in car crashes, Volkswagen pollution is harder to link to individual deaths. But it is clear to public health researchers that the air pollutants the cars illegally emitted damage health, and they have formulas to calculate the lives lost from excess pollution. Indeed, the Environmental Protection Agency uses its own estimates of the health effects of air pollution to create its regulations of what’s allowed. After consulting with several experts in modeling the health effects of air pollutants, we calculated a death toll in the United States that, at its upper range, isn’t far off from that caused by the G.M. defect.

Volkswagen said last week that it had installed software in 11 million diesel cars that deceived emissions tests, allowing the vehicles to emit far more pollutants than regulations allowed. Our estimates examine only the impact on public health in the United States, but the effects were probably substantially higher in Europe, where the cars are much more common.

The chemicals that spewed illegally from the Volkswagen diesel cars — known as nitrogen oxides or NOx — have been linked to a host of respiratory and cardiovascular illnesses, as well as premature deaths.Nitrogen oxides are a byproduct of burning fossil fuels at high temperature, whether in cars, power plants or other machines like industrial boilers. The chemicals can be harmful to humans, and in warm, sunny conditions, they can also be converted into ground-level ozone, or smog, and particle pollution, which also harm health.

Nitrogen dioxide and ozone irritate the lungs, increasing airway inflammation, coughing and wheezing, and can lower resistance to respiratory illness like influenza, especially with long-term exposure. The chemicals worsen the suffering and risk for those with chronic conditions like asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and drive up hospitalizations and premature deaths, particularly among older people.

The impact of smog and soot pollution on global health is substantial: A recent paper by Jos Lelieveld, at the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry in Germany, and colleagues estimated that air pollution causes some three million premature deaths a year, and that the number of deaths could more than double by 2050.

The American Lung Association estimates that nearly 41 percent of Americans live in areas with unhealthy levels of ozone. And that’s with reductions brought about by national air quality standards and regulation. Between 1980 and 2014, the E.P.A. estimates that nitrogen dioxide levels in the air fell by more than half. The Obama administration has stepped up its regulation of emissions from power plants and tightened standards for vehicles. A still tougher ozone standard is expected next month.

The part of the country that has probably experienced the most harm from the Volkswagen fraud is California, which already has the worst air quality in the nation. About 7,200 premature deaths a year are caused by air pollution there, and 73 percent of the state’s population, or 28 million people, live in counties with unhealthy levels of ozone or particle pollution.

California also has the largest number of diesel passenger cars — some 50,000 of them, said Dave Clegern, a spokesman for the state’s air resources board, which regulates air quality in the state. Regulation has helped, Mr. Clegern said, but “we still have a significant problem.” Regulations are developed with automakers at the table, he said, and “in order to do that, you have to have a level of trust.” Regarding the Volkswagen deception, he said, “This kind of thing is, to say the least, absolutely no help.”

The potential damage of technologies like the “defeat device” that allowed Volkswagen to evade pollution rules since late 2008 is substantial. Volkswagen diesel cars represent fewer than 1 percent of cars on the road in the United States. But if every car — gasoline, diesel and electric hybrid — exceeded the legal limits by a similar amount, the consequences for air pollution and human health would be significant.

“Beijing comes to mind,” said Paul Billings, a senior vice president at the American Lung Association.

To estimate the harm in the United States, we used two different scientific models for the effects of nitrogen oxide pollution on human health.

One comes from a sort of natural experiment, when new regulations on power plant pollution caused some counties, but not others, to cut back on nitrogen oxide pollution. The counties subject to regulation reduced their nitrogen oxides emissions by 350 tons a year.

A team of three researchers — Olivier Deschenes, Joseph S. Shapiro and Michael Greenstone — looked at the mortality rates and medical spending before and after the change. In a working paper, they found the extra pollution was responsible for about five more deaths for every 100,000 people each year, as well as an increase in spending on prescription drugs. Most of the excess deaths came among older Americans, though other health impacts reached the young as well as the old.

What Causes a Super Blood Moon?

A rare astronomical phenomenon Sunday night will produce a moon that will appear slightly bigger than usual and have a reddish hue, an event known as a super blood moon.

It’s a combination of curiosities that hasn’t happened since 1982, and won’t happen again until 2033. A so-called supermoon, which occurs when the moon is closest to earth in its orbit, will coincide with a lunar eclipse, leaving the moon in Earth’s shadow. Individually, the two phenomena are not uncommon, but they do not align often.

Most people are unlikely to detect the larger size of the supermoon. It may appear 14 percent larger and 30 percent brighter, but the difference is subtle to the plain eye. But the reddish tint from the lunar eclipse is likely to be visible throughout much of North America, especially on the East Coast.

“You’re basically seeing all of the sunrises and sunsets across the world, all at once, being reflected off the surface of the moon,” said Dr. Sarah Noble, a program scientist at NASA.Continue reading the main storyNASA | Supermoon Lunar Eclipse Video by NASA Goddard

United Photo Press photographer Carlos Sousa depart from
Albufeira Marina at sailing boat, to catch the best moon.
Stargazers are excited. Though the celestial show will be visible by simply looking toward the sky, the Intrepid Museum in New York will host a free viewing from its perch at Pier 86 on the Hudson River with astronomers and high-powered telescopes on hand. The Amateur Astronomers Association of New York will be holding several free events in the city,including at the High Line, offering telescopes and binoculars for better views.

“People can ask questions, and we can answer the questions right there,” said Marcelo Cabrera, the club’s president.

The eclipse will begin at 9:07 p.m. Eastern time, as the Earth’s shadow moves across the moon, according to the association. At 10:11 p.m., the entire moon should be in the Earth’s shadow, at which point it will adopt the reddish color. It will remain fully in the shadow until 11:23 p.m., and the eclipse will end at 12:27 a.m.

If time or attention spans run short, Mr. Cabrera suggested looking up just before the moon descends fully into the Earth’s shadow at 10:11 p.m., as it turns color.

Dr. Noble said such events tend to get more people interested in astronomy, as it creates an opportunity to take children outside and get them looking up at the sky. “It leads to conversations about what else is up there,” she said.

The Pope and the Labels of Liberalism

The Pope’s historic role, which Francis is playing, is to be a very well-dressed critic of the liberal state in all its forms.
New Yorkers personalize everything, and the shutdown of traffic around town this week was put personally on the head of our visitor, Pope Francis. A certain amount of the normal exasperation felt at out-of-towners was directed at the pontiff, as though the Pope were one of those tourists trying to stuff a dollar bill into the Metrocard slot. (God, or somebody, forbid he should try to work the new Rube Goldberg contraption for the crosstown bus.)

Yet given how disruptive he was to normal life, the tone of his visit was astonishingly welcoming, not least because this particular Pope lit up people who aren’t normally crazy about the papacy, while—and this is part of what brought joy to the first group—driving round the bend people who normally are more Catholic than he is. And yet this Pope is no more a “liberal” Pope than he is a secret Muslim Pope—he’s the Pope. His historic role, which he is playing, is to be a very well-dressed critic of the liberal state in all its forms. The trick about this Pope is not that he is a secret liberal but that he is such a thoroughgoing critic of liberalism and its dispensations that his assault takes in parts of our experience parochially described as conservative.

It would, to be sure, be a saintly liberal who didn’t feel a little schadenfreude on hearing the Pope contradict certain shibboleths of the self-described religious right. The very people—including members of the Catholic hierarchy—who, when it comes to women’s rights to make intimate reproductive decisions for themselves, have been most passionately devoted to the idea that one can’t be a “cafeteria Catholic,” picking and choosing doctrine as you like, are now loudly determined to, well, pick and choose among papal doctrines just as they like. Making metaphysical decisions about the status of embryos for women is one thing; being asked to condemn killing criminals and torturing prisoners and poisoning the Earth, these are, apparently, different—moral options on which man must be free to exercise his own conscience as he sees fit.

The pleasure one can’t help but feel is moderated, though, tempered by the truth that the extension of his causes and the reordering of his priorities does not alter Francis’s core beliefs. Nor should it be expected to do so. The Pope is still clearly against women’s reproductive rights, and as yet no friend to their ordination. Nor has he really addressed the sexual-abuse crisis, which has done so much to diminish the Church in America; his remarks on the subject in Washington were, as one survivor of priestly abuse said, in the Washington Post, “bizarre,” more devoted to praising the mostly invisible moral courage of the hierarchy that participated in the coverup than in addressing the evil done to the abused. A leader of SNAP, the victims’ organization, called Francis’s remarks “a slap in the face to all the victims, that we’re going to worry about how the poor bishop feels.” (It is a sign of the special moral exemption the Catholic Church receives that, had any other organization in the world engaged in the same activity, many of its leaders would be in prison.)

Francis’s allegiance is to the continuity of his Church, not to its disruption on even a point of liberal law. He appears to be genuinely and, on his own terms, understandably more concerned about protecting the continuities of his organization than with getting absolute justice for its victims. And he remains anti-liberal in the colloquial sense of American politics—opposed to dissent that might run against the whole grain of stability and continuity of the Church. Though some may hope that he will see the light on the question of contraception, where the consensus of his own followers in America is against the current position, there are no signs that this will take place, even if, rationally, a belief that abortion is murder ought to include an evangelical desire to make available those kinds of contraception that prevent it from happening. But the moral core of the prohibition is really rooted in the Augustinian idea that procreative sex is (just barely) to be blessed; recreational sex never to be. It is a completely consistent and, on its own terms, fair enough position, if you happen to buy it. Dictating other people’s morality is the reason churches have Popes. It’s what they’re there to do. Not having our morality dictated by Popes is the reason we have dissenting churches (with their own moral instructors) and non-believers. The clash between liberalism and authoritarian faith is permanent.

Yet if the Pope is certainly anti-liberal in our local party sense, he is—and this is where the misunderstandings happen—also anti-liberal in the classic political-economy sense: he is opposed to, or at best deeply suspicious of, free-market rationales and free-market reasoning. He does not believe, as most of the American right has come to in the past forty or so years, that the workings of the unimpeded market are good, much less uniquely blessed. The materialism of the market is as anathema to him as the materialism of the flesh. This was the core view in his speech to Congress. It is no surprise that he distrusts the market—people who pursue profit and pleasure at the expense of holiness are exactly what his faith means by sinners. This particular form of anti-liberalism is just less familiar to us when properly called so.

The curious thing is that, brought together, these two kinds of liberalisms once cancelled each other out in an odd algebra of faith, and produced something extraordinarily valuable: the American liberal (and radical) Catholic tradition. It is now hard to recall that there was a time when passionately Catholic believers—equally out of sorts with capitalism and liberal conformism, and believing that a deeper knowledge of sin was essential to America’s salvation—were at the vanguard of social change. The Eugene McCarthy mutiny in the Democratic Party in 1968 was, as the great critic Wilfred Sheed wrote at the time, a pure triumph of “Commonweal Catholicism.” (Imagine! A movement named after a magazine. Though doubtless New Yorker liberals exist, too.) The farther reaches of the same movement produced the Berrigan brothers, whose exploits in anti-war campaigning were chronicled, brilliantly, in these pages by Francine du Plessix Gray (who, blessedly, turns a vivid and active eighty-five today).

The key to liberal, and radical, Catholicism was the faith not that modernity was wrong but that materialism was never enough. A life devoted only to getting and spending and screwing and dying was unworthy of humanity, and it was the role of the Church to remind us of a larger mission. To make that case is the historical role of the Catholic Church—it is no friend, and will never be, to liberal politics or liberal polities, but it is a voice for values and virtues that may well elude the liberal millennium. One would have to be a little deranged—hostage to a dogma—to think that much could not be learned from it. To contribute a little to the exasperation—I wait endlessly for the M86 even as I write this—one of the things that can make liberalism, and liberal cities, well, morally strong is that we really do believe that you can learn from people from a fundamentally different or even unsympathetic framework. So welcome, Francis. May much good come of the encounter of a liberal city and a popular Pope.

Ingrid Bergman, As Time Goes By...

Last week at BAM, Isabella Rossellini co-starred, with Jeremy Irons, in a live tribute to her mother, Ingrid Bergman. The event began BAM’s Ingrid Bergman centenary film festival, which continues through Tuesday. It rounds up the usual suspects— “Casablanca,” “Notorious,” “Gaslight” “Spellbound”—along with early Swedish dramas; two of the films Bergman made with Isabella’s father, Roberto Rossellini, “Europa ’51” and “Journey to Italy”; Ingmar Bergman’s “Autumn Sonata”; “Murder on the Orient Express,” for which she won her third Oscar; and others. Before an afternoon rehearsal for the tribute, Rossellini, sitting on a couch in the elegant green room at BAM, talked about her impulse to preserve her parents’ work. “Does it have to be preserved?” she asked. “I remember talking to Bernardo Bertolucci, and he said, ‘I believe in the mandala, I believe I’m a little bit of a Buddhist. I believe that things are impermanent.’ ” Rossellini’s accent—as many of us have observed over the years, in everything from “Blue Velvet” to “30 Rock” to “Green Porno”— is like her mother’s, with a little something extra. “And then I speak to Martin Scorsese, with whom I was married, and he says, ‘Rock and roll and films—this is the culture that has characterized our century the most.’ We have to preserve all of it.”

In 2006, Rossellini made a comic, affectionate short film called “My Dad Is 100 Years Old,” directed by Guy Maddin. In it, she performed the roles of Fellini, Hitchcock, David O. Selznick, Charlie Chaplin, herself, her mother, and her father’s voice. The rest of her father was played by a belly. “Some of my family were offended by ‘My Dad Is 100 Years Old,’ because it was a surrealist film, and I portrayed my father as a belly,” she said. “To me it was like a Buddha belly or a pregnant belly, because he was fat. Most of my films are comical. But some members of my family found it was disrespectful. So this time around, I said, I’m going more traditional.”

Rossellini enlisted the help of Guido Torlonia and Ludovica Damiani, whose appreciations of Fellini and Visconti she had seen in Italy. “They had two actors, a woman and a man, reading from theatre reviews, a piece of a letter. There were photos, clips, even newsreels, which we also have tonight, so you also know where is it placed, their life, what kind of history is happening. And I thought it was so pleasant—in an hour and a half, you really have a portrait of the person, the time, and the reaction to the person. Since I didn’t want to write my own thing, because it always comes out a little bit surreal and comical—that seems to be my voice as a writer—I said, Let’s just use her autobiography.”

In the nineteen-forties, Bergman was one of the best known and most beloved movie stars in the world. Her affair with Roberto Rossellini, in 1949, caused a scandal that threatened to overshadow her reputation as an actor. Rossellini told me that with the tribute, “What I wanted to say about my mom is that my mom was an artist, and for her it was an urgency. If she didn’t act, she was not happy. How this came about, I don’t know. If you want to be like Lucy, five-cents psychiatrist, you could say, ‘She was an orphan, it was only when she entered dramatic school that she found happiness again, and from then on she was hooked.’ But I think life’s more complicated than that. I think sometimes she regretted it—she wanted to be a more present mother or a more present wife. When she wrote her autobiography—which she did for us, and I’m very grateful, because I consult that book a lot—I could see that she wrote so she could justify, she could tell her story. There is an emphasis on trying to explain. But in fact, what people remember her for is her art. Which is the one thing she wanted.”

In the show that night, with nearly hundred-year-old photographs of Bergman onscreen behind her, Rossellini read Bergman’s description of herself as a child: “As a little girl, I was always being something else: a bird, or a lamppost, a policeman, a postman, a flower pot. I remember the day I decided to be a small dog. I was quite disconcerted when my father refused absolutely to put a leash around my neck and take me for a walk…. I still trotted at his heels woofing at all the passersby and cocking my leg up against every tree we passed.”

The performance led the audience through Bergman’s story, with Rossellini and Irons alternating readings of Bergman’s memoir, along with letters. Glorious photographs, home movies, and film clips, from Sweden, Hollywood, Italy, and beyond, showed onscreen above them. The show revealed what Rossellini intended it to: Bergman’s playfulness, joyfulness, experimentalism, naturalism.

Bergman went to drama school at age twelve, after her father’s death, and as a young woman she began acting in Swedish films. The director Gustaf Molander taught her, she wrote, “how to underplay, to be absolutely sincere and natural: ‘Never try to be cute. Always be yourself.’ ” When she came to Hollywood, when David O. Selznick decided to remake her Swedish hit “Intermezzo,” he wanted her to change her name—too German, too hard to pronounce—and she refused. In the performance, Jeremy Irons read, “Selznick looked fumbled and then said, ‘I’ve got an idea! It is a simple idea yet none in Hollywood has even tried it before. Nothing about you is going to be touched. Nothing altered. You will remain yourself. Ingrid Bergman is going to be the first natural actress!’ ” She relished challenging roles, such as a burn victim in the Swedish melodrama “A Woman’s Face”; in Hollywood, during the filming of “Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde,” she asked the director, Victor Fleming, if she could switch roles with Lana Turner: “I wanted to play the little tart in the bar, the naughty little Ivy.” And she did.

The audience clapped spontaneously when clips of “Casablanca” were shown—the “Play it, Sam” scene and the “hill of beans” scene. The world remembers “Casablanca” more fondly than Bergman did. During filming, she wrote, Humphrey Bogart was grouchy and distant, and the production was chaotic. Rossellini read, “When I asked who I was supposed to be in love with, Paul Henreid, who played my husband, or Humphrey Bogart, who played my lover, Curtiz told me: ‘We don’t know yet. Just play it … well … in between.’ ”

Bergman’s zest and merriment came through in the descriptions of the making of “For Whom the Bell Tolls,” “Gaslight,” “Spellbound,” and “Notorious”; she became good friends with Hemingway, Alfred Hitchcock and his wife, and Jean Renoir and his wife. Rossellini read her mother’s description of Hitchcock’s intimate dinner parties: “ ‘More than eight people around the table is an insult to friendship,’ he would say. Hitch, because I could drink a lot and never get sick, awarded me with the honorary title of the ‘human sink.’ ” A charming late clip played, of Bergman saluting Hitchcock at his AFI Life Achievement award, in which she calls him a “gentleman farmer who raises gooseflesh.”

In 1947, Bergman began filming “Joan of Arc,” directed by Fleming. Rossellini read, “Like all the motion pictures done in Hollywood at the time, everything was shot in the studio: the battle scenes, the towers of Chinon, and the French villages were painted backdrops.” Onstage, Bergman’s own behind-the-scenes footage, shot on 16-mm. film, played above Rossellini and Irons. Rossellini read, “I wanted to get out into the world; I wanted to be where the real people were. I was seeking the truth.” One night, Bergman saw Roberto Rossellini’s 1945 neorealist masterpiece “Open City,” about Rome during Nazi occupation. “The realism and simplicity of the film was heart shocking,” Bergman wrote. “No one looked like an actor, no one talked like an actor.”

Bergman wrote Rossellini a letter: “If you need a Swedish actress who speaks English very well, who has not forgotten her German, who is not very understandable in French, and who in Italian knows only ‘ti amo,’ I am ready to come and make a film with you.” Rossellini didn’t know Bergman. Jeremy Irons read, “Well, who is this Ingrid Bergman? Wait a minute … ‘Intermezzo’? That Swedish film.” He had seen it during a bombing raid. “I ran into the nearest place to shelter—a cinema. What better place to lose one’s life than in a comfortable seat in a cinema?” He had sat through it three times: “It was a very long bombing raid.” He accepted her offer with enthusiasm.

In the green room, Rossellini said to me, “My father is trying to figure out, how do you integrate a big Swede that doesn’t speak Italian, blond, blue eyes?” He was a neorealist director, and his style, not to mention Bergman’s, required naturalism. “So one day he is travelling outside of Rome, and he sees a refugee camp. And he writes to my mother, ‘I saw this refugee camp, this field with these women looking like lambs, just walking around. One was a little bit separated from the others, and she was gesticulating to me…. I had the feeling that she was trying to seduce me.’ This is the beginning of ‘Stromboli.’ A woman that does not want to go back to Lithuania, Estonia, Poland, a country that was completely devastated by the war. Her only chance is to seduce an Italian to stay. She happens to go to Stromboli, a primitive island, this incredible cultural clash.”

Bergman and Rossellini, who were both married, with children, fell in love on the set of “Stromboli.” In the performance that night, Rossellini read, “As soon as we got to the island of Stromboli, a small volcanic island north of Sicily, and began to film, everyone realized that Roberto and I spent more time together than was necessary just to shoot a movie.… The Italian press, scenting amore as sharks scent blood, were already dispatching to the island reporters disguised as fishermen, as tourists. On one occasion one came as a monk.” Bergman, who had played a nun and a saint, became pregnant with their son, scandalizing the world. In the U.S., she was condemned as a “powerful force for evil” on the Senate floor. Bergman and Rossellini divorced their spouses, married, and had two more children: Isabella and her twin sister, Ingrid. They made five films together.

Rossellini said to me, “A lot of people have asked me, ‘Was she an early feminist?’ She was an artist. She had to do what she had to do. It happened that she did it at a time in which women’s roles were changing. She was punished for her independence. It was society that wasn’t feminist.”

With Rossellini, Bergman made great art; the commercial world didn’t know how to respond to it, but, as Richard Brody has written, the films, in particular “Journey to Italy,” helped to inspire the French New Wave.

Over the years, Bergman wrote, “I started to feel resentful of Roberto’s jealousy and possessiveness. He wouldn’t let me work with any other director”—not Zeffirelli, Fellini, Visconti, or De Sica. “It was my old friend Jean Renoir who rescued me,” she wrote. Renoir visited the couple, offered Bergman a role in a film, and encouraged Rossellini to shoot a documentary in India. “He came back from India with his documentary and a pregnant Indian woman. I felt a smile spreading on my face from ear to ear. I was so relieved. For him and for me. Now we had solved it.”

After they divorced, Bergman married a Swedish theatre producer, Lars Schmidt. In home movies shown during the performance, Bergman, her four children, and Schmidt frolicked in full-color midsummer joy on Schmidt’s remote Swedish island. Bergman made many other films, including “Anastasia,” a television production of “Hedda Gabler,” “Cactus Flower,” with Goldie Hawn, “Murder on the Orient Express,” “Autumn Sonata,” and “A Woman Called Golda,” in which she played Golda Meir. At the end of the show, Rossellini read, “There is something so dramatic, nostalgic, and heartbreaking about the end of a run of a play or a film shoot. We had been a wonderfully friendly and tightly knit company. Then of course it comes to an end.” You have a party, “you go from dressing room to dressing room and everybody’s kissing everybody else, and everybody is in tears. It’s such desperation when you leave. It’s divorce from the people you have learnt to love, and you say: shall we ever meet again?”

In the green room, Rossellini told me that Jean Renoir had written a book that she’d read with interest: “the most beautiful book on his father, Auguste Renoir, the painter,” she said. “Jean Renoir was a soldier when he was eighteen, in World War I, and he was wounded. When Jean got wounded the father became crazy with worry, you know, and so he took Jean into his studio, always under his watch, so he could paint. He would speak to Jean about art and what he was trying to do. It’s the most incredible portrait of an artist. And there’s one thing that Jean says: ‘I have to paint. It’s like peeing. I cannot not do it.’ ” She laughed. “I always loved that. It made me understand the urgency that artists feel. You know? You see Auguste Renoir when he has arthritis and he has his hands all deformed, he used to tie brushes—have you ever seen the photo of Auguste Renoir with his hands tied like this? My mom was the same. People say, ‘Oh she’s so beautiful, the glamour!’ She couldn’t have cared less. She acted until the end. The last thing she said is, ‘They’ll always need a witch!’ ”